Research Article

Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum di RSUD Sanjiwani, Gianyar

Made Ayu Cynthia Windasari , Dewa Ayu Ketut Oka Sadnyani

Made Ayu Cynthia Windasari
Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, RSUD Sanjiwani, Gianyar. Email: cynthia.windasari@yahoo.co.id

Dewa Ayu Ketut Oka Sadnyani
Dokter magang, RSUD Sanjiwani, Gianyar
Online First: April 30, 2021 | Cite this Article
Windasari, M., Sadnyani, D. 2021. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum di RSUD Sanjiwani, Gianyar. Intisari Sains Medis 12(1): 401-406. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i1.874


Introduction: Asphyxia neonatorum is a condition in which the newborn does not breathe spontaneously, regularly and adequately. The incidence of asphyxia is one of the three leading causes of death in neonates in developing countries with an estimated 21-30%. Asphyxia can result. Asphyxia can cause a variety of adverse short-term and long-term complications. Objective: The aim of this study is to know the correlation between risk factors of asphyxia in Sanjiwani hospital, Gianyar.

Methods: This research is a cross-sectional observational analytic study.  Newborn who was diagnosed with asphyxia in Sanjiwani hospital between January 2019- December 2019 were included. Data, such as maternal age, mode of delivery, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, prolong labor, low birth weight, premature and placental abnormalities were collected from medical record. The data were processed and analyzed univariate and bivariate using Chi-square test dan Fisher exact test to get prevalence ratio (PR). The value of p<0,05 was considered significant.

Results: The results showed that out of 162 cases, 46.9% of newborns had asphyxia. A bivariate analysis showed significant correlation between asphyxia and premature rupture of membranes (PR=1,748, p=0,041, CI 95% 1,211 - 3,582)), mode of delivery (PR=1,975, p=0,039: CI 95% 1,032 – 3,780), low birth weight (PR=3,662, p=0.001; IK 95% 1,733 - 7,738), premature (PR=2,461, p=0.014; CI 95% 1,185 - 5,114) dan placental abnormality (PR=8,623, p=0,018; CI 95% 1,036 - 71,785).

Conclusion: Premature rupture of membranes, mode of delivery, low birth weight, premature and placental abnormalities are risk factor that associated with neonatal asphyxia. Early detection in these risk factors was essential to decreased asphyxia.

 

 

Pendahuluan: Asfiksia neonatorum merupakan suatu kondisi dimana bayi baru lahir tidak bernapas secara spontan, adekuat dan teratur. Kejadian asfiksia adalah salah satu dari tiga penyebab kematian terbanyak pada neonatus di negara berkembang dengan perkiraan sekitar 21-30%. Asfiksia dapat menimbulkan berbagai komplikasi jangka pendek dan jangka panjang yang merugikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan asfiksia neonatorum di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional potong lintang. Sampel penelitian adalah bayi baru lahir yang terdiagnosis asfiksia neonatorum di RSUD Gianyar dalam kurun waktu Januari 2019 – Desember 2019. Data berupa usia maternal, metode persalinan, preeklampsia, ketuban pecah dini, partus lama, prematuritas, berat badan lahir rendah dan kelainan plasenta didapatkan dari rekam medis. Data kemudian dianalisis secara univariat dan bivariat dengan uji Chi-square dan Fisher exact, serta dilakukan analisis prevalence ratio (PR). Hubungan dikatakan signifikan apabila diperoleh nilai p<0,05.

Hasil: penelitian menunjukkan dari 162 sampel, sebanyak 46,9% bayi baru lahir mengalami asfiksia. Berdasarkan hasil uji bivariat didapatkan hubungan yang bermakna antara  kejadian asfiksia neonatorum dengan ketuban pecah dini (PR=1,748, p=0,041, IK 95% 1,211 - 3,582), metode persalinan (PR=1,975, p=0,039: IK 95% 1,032 – 3,780), berat badan lahir rendah (PR=3,662, p=0.001; IK 95% 1,733 - 7,738), prematur (PR=2,461, p=0.014; IK 95% 1,185 - 5,114) dan kelainan plasenta (PR=8,623, p=0,018; IK 95% 1,036 - 71,785).

Simpulan: Ketuban pecah dini, metode persalinan, berat badan lahir rendah, prematuritas dan kelainan plasenta merupakan faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan terjadinya asfiksia neonatorum. Deteksi dini terhadap faktor risiko ini diharapkan dapat membantu menurunkan terjadinya asfiksia.

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