Research Article

Hubungan derajat keparahan preeklamsia dengan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum di Rumah Sakit Umum Negara periode Januari 2019 - Januari 2020

I Gde Ketut Fendy Indrapermana , Iswara Somadina Duarsa

I Gde Ketut Fendy Indrapermana
Dokter Internsip, RSU Negara, Jembrana, Bali. Email: Permanafendy@yahoo.co.id

Iswara Somadina Duarsa
Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Rumah Sakit Umum Negara, Jembrana, Bali
Online First: October 20, 2020 | Cite this Article
Indrapermana, I., Duarsa, I. 2020. Hubungan derajat keparahan preeklamsia dengan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum di Rumah Sakit Umum Negara periode Januari 2019 - Januari 2020. Intisari Sains Medis 11(3): 688-693. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i3.840


Background: Preeclampsia is one of complication in pregnancy and the causal of maternal morbidity and mortality. There is an impairment of blood flow to placenta vascularization which lead to tissue hypoxia and increase the chance to develop asphyxia neonatorum. The aim of this study is to know the correlation between severity of preeclampsia and asphyxia neonatorum in Negara General Hospital on January 2019-January 2020.

Methods: The design of this study was observational analytic cross-sectional. Woman who was diagnosed with preeclampsia and delivered in Negara General Hospital, Jembrana between January 2019-January 2019 were included by total sampling. Data, such as maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, severity of preeclampsia and asphyxia neonatorum, were collected from medical record. Then, data was analyzed bivariate using chi-square test and prevalence ratio (PR) analysis was conducted. The value of p<0,05 was considered significant.

Results: As many as 170 women with preeclampsia were recruited in the study. The prevalence of birth asphyxia was 71,2% in this study. Majority of women were 20-35 years old (67,1%), parity 2-3 (50,6%), had assisted-delivery (74,7%) and severe preeclampsia (72,9%). A bivariate analysis showed the prevalence of asphyxia neonatorum was significantly higher in assisted-delivery (PR=2,541, p=0,036; 95% CI=1,044-6,188) and severe preeclampsia (PR=2,346, p=0,045; 95% CI=1,044-5,486).

Conclusion: Mode of delivery and severity of preeclampsia is associated with asphyxia neonatorum. Early identification and proper antepartum management were essential to prevent asphyxia neonatorum in mother with risk factors.

 

 

Latar Belakang: Preeklampsia adalah salah satu komplikasi kehamilan dan penyebab morbiditas dan mortalitas maternal. Kondisi ini menyebabkan gangguan aliran darah ke vaskularisasi plasenta sehingga dapat menimbulkan hipoksia jaringan dan berpotensi menyebabkan asfiksia neonatorum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara derajat keparahan preeklampsia dan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum di Rumah Sakit Umum (RSU) Negara.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan analitik observasional desain potong-lintang. Sampel penelitian adalah wanita yang terdiagnosis dengan preeklampsia dan menjalani persalinan di RSU Negara, Jembrana dalam kurun waktu Januari 2019 – Januari 2020 yang dikumpulkan secara total sampling. Data berupa usia maternal, paritas, metode persalinan, derajat preeklampsia, dan kejadian asfiksia neonatorum didapatkan dari rekam medis. Data kemudian dianalisis secara bivariat dengan uji chi-square dan dilakukan analisis prevalence ratio (PR). Hubungan dikatakan signifikan apabila diperoleh nilai p<0,05.

Hasil: Penelitian ini mengikutsertakan 170 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Sebanyak 71,2% kejadian asfiksia neonatorum tercatat dalam penelitian ini. Mayoritas ibu berusia 20-35 tahun (67,1%), memiliki paritas 2-3, melakukan persalinan dengan tindakan (74,7%), dan mengalami preeklampsia berat (72,9%). Berdasarkan hasil uji bivariat, prevalensi kejadian asfiksia neonatorum lebih tinggi pada persalinan dengan tindakan (PR=2,541, p=0,036; Confidence interval (CI) 95% 1,044-6,188) dan preeklampsia berat (PR=2,346, p=0,045; CI 95% 1,044-5,486).

Simpulan: Metode persalinan dan derajat preeklampsia berhubungan dengan kejadian asfiksia. Deteksi dini dan penanganan anterpartum yang tepat dapat membantu mencegah kejadian asfiksia neonatorum pada ibu yang berisiko.

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