Review Article

Peranan sirkumsisi dalam pencegahan infeksi menular seksual

Putu Ayu Dewita Ganeswari , Luh Made Shanti Maheswari, Ni Made Dwi Puspawati

Putu Ayu Dewita Ganeswari
Departemen Dermatologi dan Venereologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana-RSUP Sanglah. Email: tata.swari@yahoo.com

Luh Made Shanti Maheswari
Departemen Dermatologi dan Venereologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana-RSUP Sanglah, Bali-Indonesia

Ni Made Dwi Puspawati
Departemen Dermatologi dan Venereologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana-RSUP Sanglah, Bali-Indonesia
Online First: December 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Ganeswari, P., Maheswari, L., Puspawati, N. 2020. Peranan sirkumsisi dalam pencegahan infeksi menular seksual. Intisari Sains Medis 11(3): 1157-1164. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i3.835


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a threat to society in the era of global health. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) states, more than 1 million cases of STIs are found every day worldwide. The increase number of STI cases requires health workers to think about various preventive measures so that the cases do not increase. Prevention of STIs can be done with several conventional steps including being faithful to one partner and using a condom during sexual intercourse. There was a consideration in the quantity and quality of scientific evidence documenting the safety and health benefits of circumcised men as a method of preventing STIs. Male circumcision has emerged as a means of reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. In recent decades, several studies have produced evidence on the effects of male circumcision on HIV transmission. Circumcision in men is recommended as an effective preventive strategy against sexually transmitted infections, in addition to several methods such as increasing screening and counseling, delivering education related to abstinence, using condoms, reducing the habit of changing sexual partners, and testing for HIV early so that it can start immediately antiretroviral therapy. There were a lot of controversy surrounding male circumcision. The correct procedure for circumcision can be beneficial, although short-term surgical complications and suspected long-term harm are also possible.

 

Infeksi menular seksual (IMS) merupakan ancaman bagi masyarakat pada era kesehatan global. Data World Health Organization (WHO) menyatakan bahwa lebih dari 1 juta kasus IMS ditemukan setiap hari di seluruh dunia. Peningkatan jumlah kasus IMS mengharuskan tenaga medis untuk memikirkan berbagai tindakan preventif agar semakin hari kasus tidak semakin bertambah. Pencegahan terhadap adanya IMS dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa langkah konvensional diantaranya setia pada satu pasangan dan menggunakan kondom saat berhubungan seksual. Terdapat pertimbangan dalam kuantitas dan kualitas bukti ilmiah yang mendokumentasikan keamanan dan manfaat kesehatan pada pria yang telah disirkumsisi sebagai salah satu metode pencegahan IMS. Sirkumsisi pada pria telah muncul sebagai sarana dalam mengurangi transmisi infeksi menular seksual. Dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, beberapa penelitian telah menghasilkan bukti mengenai efek sirkumsisi pada pria dalam transmisi human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sirkumsisi pada pria dianjurkan sebagai strategi pencegahan yang efektif terhadap infeksi menular seksual, selain dengan beberapa metode seperti meningkatkan skrining dan konseling, penyampaian edukasi terkait dengan abstinensia, penggunaan kondom, mengurangi kebiasaan berganti-ganti pasangan seksual, dan tes HIV lebih dini sehingga dapat segera memulai terapi antiretroviral. Banyak kontroversi seputar sirkumsisi pada pria. Prosedur tindakan sirkumsisi yang benar bisa membawa manfaat, meskipun komplikasi bedah jangka pendek dan dugaan kerugian jangka panjang juga masih mungkin terjadi.

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