Review Article

Koagulopati pada Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): Tinjauan pustaka

Herick Alvenus Willim , Amanda Trixie Hardigaloeh, Alice Inda Supit, Handriyani Handriyani

Herick Alvenus Willim
Unit Pelayanan COVID-19, RS Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Email: herick_alvenus@yahoo.co.id

Amanda Trixie Hardigaloeh
Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, RSUD Sultan Syarif Mohamad Alkadrie, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia

Alice Inda Supit
Departemen Kardiologi dan Kedokteran Vaskular, RSUD dr. Soedarso, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia

Handriyani Handriyani
Departemen Pulmonologi dan Kedokteran Respirasi, RSUD Ade Mohamad Djoen, Sintang, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Online First: December 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Willim, H., Hardigaloeh, A., Supit, A., Handriyani, H. 2020. Koagulopati pada Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): Tinjauan pustaka. Intisari Sains Medis 11(3): 1130-1137. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i3.766


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has spread globally and become a new pandemic. Although the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 mainly affected the respiratory system, coagulopathy often occurs in the severe cases and is associated with increased mortality. This literature review aims to provide a review of coagulopathy in COVID-19.

Methods: This literature review involved 52 relevant literature about coagulopathy and COVID-19. Different data sources or manual literature search methods used to find articles related to the topic of literature.

Results: COVID-19 can trigger cytokine storms and systemic hyperinflammation which cause increased activation of coagulation and resulting in hypercoagulability. Hypercoagulability state in COVID-19 increases the risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism, particularly venous thromboembolism. Prophylactic anticoagulants can prevent thromboembolic events and improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with coagulopathy.

Conclusion: The hypercoagulation state in COVID-19 can increase the risk of complications from thrombosis and thromboembolism, especially venous thromboembolism. Increased D-dimers are a marker of coagulopathy that is often found in patients with severe COVID-19 and is associated with disease severity.

 

Latar Belakang: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) merupakan penyakit infeksi akibat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 telah menyebar secara global dan menjadi pandemi baru. Walaupun manifestasi klinis COVID-19 terutama mengenai sistem respirasi, koagulopati seringkali terjadi pada kasus berat dan berhubungan dengan peningkatan mortalitas. Tinjauan pustaka ini bertujuan untuk memberikan ulasan mengenai koagulopati pada COVID-19.

Metode: Tinjauan pustaka ini melibatkan 52 literatur yang relevan tentang koagulopati dan COVID-19. Sumber data yang berbeda atau metode pencarian literatur manual digunakan untuk mencari artikel yang berkaitan dengan topik literatur.

Hasil: COVID-19 dapat memicu terjadinya badai sitokin dan hiperinflamasi sistemik yang menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan aktivasi koagulasi dan mengakibatkan hiperkoagulasi. Keadaan hiperkoagulasi pada COVID-19 meningkatkan risiko terjadinya trombosis dan tromboemboli, terutama tromboemboli vena. Antikoagulan profilaksis dapat mencegah kejadian tromboemboli dan meningkatkan prognosis pada pasien COVID-19 dengan koagulopati.

Kesimpulan: Keadaan hiperkoagulasi pada COVID-19 dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya komplikasi trombosis dan tromboemboli, terutama tromboemboli vena. Peningkatan D-dimer merupakan penanda koagulopati yang sering ditemukan pada pasien COVID-19 berat dan berhubungan dengan keparahan penyakit.

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