Research Article

The relationship between urine specific gravity, urine pH, and blood uric acid levels to the type of urinary stones of patients with urolithiasis at Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

Jetty Kalembang , Anak Agung Gde Oka, I Gede Raka Widiana

Jetty Kalembang
General Surgery Resident, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Email: jettykal@gmail.com

Anak Agung Gde Oka
Division of Urology Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

I Gede Raka Widiana
Division of Kidney and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: July 19, 2020 | Cite this Article
Kalembang, J., Oka, A., Widiana, I. 2020. The relationship between urine specific gravity, urine pH, and blood uric acid levels to the type of urinary stones of patients with urolithiasis at Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis 11(2): 566-570. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i2.744


Background: Urine specific gravity, urine pH, and blood uric acid levels are risk factors for urinary tract stones. The urinary tract stones are formed due to the concentration of a solute exceeds its ability to remain in solution, resulting in supersaturation and crystallization. This study aims to determine the relationship between urine specific gravity, urine pH, and blood uric acid levels to the urinary stone's types in patients with urolithiasis at Sanglah Hospital

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 subjects by using secondary data from the medical records in the period June 2017-2018 at Sanglah Hospital. The urolithiasis patient who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test using SPSS version 17 for Windows.

Results: The average age was 55±11 years old. Most of respondents were male (70.5%), normal Body Mass Index (BMI) (89.5%), urine pH <7 (75.7%), and mixed type of urinary stones (48.4%). There was a statistically significant relationship between the type of uric acid stone (p=0.029), blood uric acid levels (p=0.003), phosphate stone type (p=0.026), and magnesium stone (p=0.010) with urine pH. Besides, there was a statistically significant relationship between ammonium stone and blood uric acid levels types (p=0.022). A statistically significant difference was also found between stone types based on urine pH (p=0.013) in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between urine pH and stone type on the incidence of urolithiasis in Sanglah Hospital in June 2017-2018, thereby increasing the incidence of urolithiasis.

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