Research Article

Analisis faktor risiko infeksi malaria sesudah bencana gempa bumi di Kabupaten Lombok Barat, Indonesia

Michelle Amazing Grace Rampengan , Ni Made Utami Dwipayanti, Putu Cintya Denny Yuliyatni

Michelle Amazing Grace Rampengan
Program Studi Magister Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Email: michellerampengan@gmail.com

Ni Made Utami Dwipayanti
Program Studi Magister Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Putu Cintya Denny Yuliyatni
Program Studi Magister Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia Departemen Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Kedokteran Pencegahan, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: April 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Rampengan, M., Dwipayanti, N., Yuliyatni, P. 2020. Analisis faktor risiko infeksi malaria sesudah bencana gempa bumi di Kabupaten Lombok Barat, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis 11(1): 357-363. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i1.660


Background: Malaria is an infectious disease that often arises in post-disaster situations such as earthquakes. The earthquake that occurred in Lombok caused damage to people's homes and forced them to live in emergency tents. This condition increases the risk of malaria transmission so that malaria outbreak occurs. This study aims to determine the risk factors for malaria infection after the earthquake disaster in West Lombok Regency.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 168 respondents located in four Public Health Services working areas in West Lombok. Cases were positive malaria sufferers based on microscopic examination results and were recorded in the health centre register in the September-November 2018 period. In addition, the controls were people who did not suffer from malaria based on microscopic examination results and lived in the study area. Case samples were selected by systematic random sampling from the register of health centres and control samples were selected by convenient sampling from communities living in one hamlet with cases. The bivariate analysis uses Chi-Square and Fisher-Exact test, while multivariate analysis uses logistic regression in SPSS version 20 for Windows.

Results: The results showed that the proportion of male and female did not differ between groups of cases and controls (50.0%; p = 1.00). Most of the case groups were > 34 years old (51.8%) while controls were ≤ 34 years old (55.4%). There were no differences in proportions at the level of education, occupation, type of residence, length of refuge, and location of refuge in the two groups (p> 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for malaria infection after the earthquake disaster in the district of West Lombok were primarily due to the presence of gardens in refugee camps (AOR = 11,899; 95% CI: 2,369-59,774).

Conclusion: The existence of gardens in refugee camps is the most influential risk factor for malaria infection after the earthquake disaster in West Lombok Regency.

 

Latar Belakang: Malaria adalah penyakit menular yang sering muncul pada situasi sesudah bencana seperti gempa bumi. Gempa bumi yang terjadi di Lombok ini mengakibatkan kerusakan pada rumah-rumah warga dan mengharuskan mereka tinggal di tenda-tenda darurat. Kondisi ini meningkatkan risiko penularan malaria sehingga terjadi Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB) malaria. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko infeksi malaria sesudah bencana gempa bumi di Kabupaten Lombok Barat.

Metode: Penelitian kasus-kontrol (case-control) dan berlokasi di empat wilayah kerja puskesmas di Kabupaten Lombok Barat sebanyak 168 responden dilakukan pada penelitian ini. Kasus adalah penderita malaria positif berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis dan tercatat dalam buku register puskesmas pada periode September-November 2018. Sedangkan kontrol adalah orang yang tidak menderita malaria berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis dan tinggal di wilayah tempat penelitian. Sampel kasus dipilih secara systematic random sampling dari buku register puskesmas dan sampel kontrol dipilih secara convenient sampling dari masyarakat yang tinggal satu dusun dengan kasus. Analisis bivariat menggunakan chi square dan fisher sedangkan analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi logistik pada SPSS versi 20 untuk Windows.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proporsi jenis kelamin laki-laki dan perempuan tidak berbeda antar kelompok kasus dan kontrol (50,0%; p=1,00). Sebagian besar kelompok kasus berusia > 34 tahun (51,8%) sedangkan kontrol berusia ≤ 34 tahun (55,4%). Tidak terdapat perbedaan proporsi pada tingkat pendidikan, pekerjaan, jenis tempat tinggal, lama mengungsi, dan lokasi mengungsi pada kedua kelompok (p>0,05). Hasil analisis multivariat menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko infeksi malaria sesudah bencana gempa bumi di kabupaten Lombok Barat adalah sebagian besar oleh keberadaan kebun di lokasi pengungsian (AOR=11,899; 95%IK: 2,369-59,774).

Simpulan: Keberadaan kebun di lokasi pengungsian merupakan faktor risiko yang paling berpengaruh terhadap infeksi malaria sesudah bencana gempa bumi di Kabupaten Lombok barat.

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