Case Report

The physiological aspect of thyroid-induced breast cancer: a case report

Putu Austin Widyasari Wijaya

Putu Austin Widyasari Wijaya
Postgraduate Student, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Email: austinwijaya.aw@gmail.com
Online First: March 03, 2020 | Cite this Article
Wijaya, P. 2020. The physiological aspect of thyroid-induced breast cancer: a case report. Intisari Sains Medis 11(1): 100-103. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i1.621


Background: Breast cancer has the second-highest prevalence of cancer in Indonesia. The aetiology of breast cancer involves endogenous sex hormone activity, estrogen. Besides, thyroid hormones have estrogen-like effects on breast tissue which are thought to play a role in the development of breast cancer. This case report aims to evaluate the physiological aspect of thyroid-induced breast cancer.

Case Report: A 49-year-old Balinese woman came to the Primary Health Care with a history of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism for 5 years (2014-2019), complaining of a lump in her left breast. Open biopsy and immunohistochemistry were done (Grade III Invasive Carcinoma ER + 50%, Her + 2-3). Patients were diagnosed with stage 3B breast cancer and conservative treatment has been taken. The examination of TSH thyroid hormone was 0.204 µIU/mL (normal = 0.5 - 6 µIU/mL) and FT4 3.1 ng/dL (normal = 0.7-1.9 ng/dL).The primary management of patients was chemotherapy following by Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM), hormone suppressant injection, as well as Herceptin. Those medications were effective in reducing the development of breast cancer through thyroid hormone pathway.

Conclusion: Some studies showed hyperthyroidism increase the risk of breast cancer and that high thyroid levels can cause estrogen-like effects, trigger proliferation and angiogenesis by activating the same pathway as estrogen those are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK ½).

References

Ramli M. Update Breast Cancer Management, Diagnostic, and Treatment. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas. 2015;38(Suppl 1):28-53

DeSantis CE, Ma J, Gaudet MM, Newman LA, Miller KD, Goding Sauer A, et al. Breast cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019;69(6):438-451.

Shah R, Rosso K, Nathanson SD. Pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. World J Clin Oncol. 2014;5(3):283-98.

Lestari AAW, Prabawa IPY, Wiranata S, Supadmanaba IGP. High eosinophils lymphocyte ratio (ELR) related with subtype of breast cancer in Sanglah General Hospital, Bali. Annals of Oncology. 2018;29(Suppl 9):ix11-ix12

Wiranata S, Adiputra PAT, Lestari AAW, Prabawa IPY, Supadmanaba IGP. Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) Related with Clinicopathological Characteristics of Balinese Women Breast Cancer Patient. Annals of Oncology. 2019;30(Suppl 6):vi144

Ditsch N, Liebhardt S, Koch FV, Lenhard M, Vogeser M, Spitzweg C, et al. Thyroid function in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2010;30(5):1713-7.

Søgaard M, Farkas DK, Ehrenstein V, Jørgensen JO, Dekkers OM, Sørensen HT. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016;174(4):409-14.

Weng CH, Chen YH, Lin CH, Lou X, Lin TH. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan. BMJ Open. 2018;8(3):e020194.

Siegler JE, Li X, Jones SD, Kandil E. Early-onset breast cancer in a woman with Graves’ disease. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2012;5(4):358-62.

Feng Y, Spezia M, Huang S, Yuan C, Zeng Z, Zhang L, et al. Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis. Genes Dis. 2018;5(2):77-106.


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 39
PDF Downloads : 19