Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The suitability of sputum and blood culture in children with pneumonia at Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia


Background: Pneumonia is one of the diseases in children with high morbidity, especially in children under 5 years old. In developing countries, the most common cause of pneumonia is bacteria. There is a newer method that gives a better reflection of the aetiology, which is the sputum examination. This study aims to determine the suitability of sputum and blood culture in children with pneumonia at Sanglah General Hospital, Bali.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Respirology Subdivision in Department of Child Health Sanglah Hospital from November 2016 until February 2017. A categorical comparative matching was carried out between 2 formula groups. The sputum culture and blood culture were obtained through Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 for Windows.

Results: There were 50 children with pneumonia enrolled in this study. The children aged less than 1 years old were predominant (62%). There were a statistically systematic difference and only a fair agreement between blood and sputum culture (ĸ=0.257; p= 0.004). In a subject with positive sputum culture, 90.9% had a better outcome than the positive blood culture even though no statistically significant (RR=0.23; 95%CI: 0.15-22.53)

Conclusion: There is suitability between the culture of sputum and blood cultures in children with pneumonia. Sputum culture has a higher probability to reveal the microorganism compared to blood cultures.


  1. Fekadu GA, Terefe MW, Alemia GA. Prevalence of Pneumonia Among Under- Five Children in Este Town and the Surrounding Rural Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia; A Community Based Cross Sectional Study. Science Journal of Public Health. 2014;2(3):150-5.
  2. Gray D, Zar HJ. Childhood Pneumonia in Low and Middle Income Countries: Burden,Prevention and Management. Infectious Diseases Journal. 2010;4,74-84.
  3. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia. 2015.
  4. Mendel LA, Wuderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, et al. Infectious disease society of america / american thoracic society consensus guidelines on the management of community- acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2007;44:527-72.
  5. Miyashita N, Shimizu H, Ouchi K, Kawasaki K. Assesment of Usefulness of Sputum Gram Stain and culture for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:171-6.
  6. Garcia E, Vasquez,MA, Marcos J, Mensa A. Assessment of the usefulness of sputum culture for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia using PORT predictive scoring system. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1807-11.
  7. Seksan C, Apisak K, Kittisak S. Appropriateness Of Obtaining Blood Cultures In Patients With Community Acquired Pneumonia. Southeast Asian J TropMed PublicHealth. 2013;44(2):289-94.
  8. Lahti E, Peltola V, Waris M, Virkki R, Rantakokko-Jalava K, Jalava J. Induced sputum in the diagnosis of childhood community-acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2009;64:252–7.
  9. Shah SS, Dugan MH, Bell LM. Blood cultures in the emergency department evaluation of childhood pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:475–9.
  10. Angela LM, Matthew H, Derek JW. Prevalence of Bacteremia in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients With Community-acquired Pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(7):736–40.

How to Cite

Mayangsari, A. S. M., Subanada, I. B., Purniti, P. S., & Selumbung, W. A. (2019). The suitability of sputum and blood culture in children with pneumonia at Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis, 10(3).




Search Panel

Ayu Setyorini Mestika Mayangsari
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Ida Bagus Subanada
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Putu Siadi Purniti
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Wayan Agustini Selumbung
Google Scholar
ISM Journal