Research Article

Perbedaan nilai Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) terhadap pemeriksaan kultur darah dalam mendiagnosis sepsis pada pasien peritonitis di RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia

I Putu Gede Sudiartha , I Ketut Wiargitha, Tjokorda Gde Bagus Mahadewa

I Putu Gede Sudiartha
Departemen Ilmu Bedah, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Indonesia. Email: dr.pgs1983@gmail.com

I Ketut Wiargitha
Divisi Bedah Trauma dan Bedah Akut, Departemen Ilmu Bedah, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Indonesia

Tjokorda Gde Bagus Mahadewa
Divisi Bedah Saraf, Departemen Ilmu Bedah, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Indonesia
Online First: March 04, 2020 | Cite this Article
Sudiartha, I., Wiargitha, I., Mahadewa, T. 2020. Perbedaan nilai Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) terhadap pemeriksaan kultur darah dalam mendiagnosis sepsis pada pasien peritonitis di RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis 11(1): 165-171. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i1.571


Background: Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. A delayed or missed diagnosis of sepsis could increase its morbidity and mortality. The abdomen is the most common source of sepsis, which known as peritonitis-induced-sepsis. Peritonitis leads to an inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response. This study aims to elaborate on the role of Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as an easy, fast and inexpensive infection marker compared to blood culture, which known as the gold standard of sepsis in peritonitis patients. 

Methods: This is a diagnostic study which combined secondary data taken at Sanglah Hospital Medical Record Department and new cases of generalized peritonitis patients with sepsis who came to Surgical Emergency Unit of Sanglah Hospital as the subjects. A total of 86 subjects, complete blood count analysis was done to calculate NLR. Besides, 2-sided blood culture was tested to see whether the results were positive or negative. Data were analyzed using Stata/SE version 12.1

Results: We found that sensitivity of NLR compared to blood culture was 80% (CI:63.1-91.6), with specificity of 88.2% (CI:76.1-95.6), positive predictive value of 82.4% (CI:65.5-93.2), negative predictive value of 86.5% (74.2-94.4), accuracy of 84.9% and likelihood ratio (LR) positive value of 6.8>1. Our results showed that NLR has an enormous value in predicting the occurrence of sepsis in patients with generalized peritonitis. 

Conclusion: NLR can be used as a screening tool for sepsis in generalized peritonitis patients because it has better sensitivity and accuracy, but it has to confirmed by blood culture as the gold standard.

 

Latar belakang: Sepsis merupakan penyebab kematian diseluruh dunia. Keterlambatan atau kesalahan dalam mendiagnosis dapat menyebabkan peningkatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas. Abdomen merupakan sumber penyebab paling sering terjadinya sepsis yang disebut dengan sepsis diinduksi peritonitis (peritonitis-induced sepsis). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) sebagai marker infeksi yang mudah, cepat dan murah dibandingkan kultur darah yang merupakan standar baku dalam mendiagnosis sepsis pada pasien peritonitis.

Metode: Rancangan penelitan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah uji diagnostik dengan subjek penelitian  merupakan gabungan antara data sekunder yang diambil di Instalasi Rekam Medis RSUP Sanglah serta identifikasi kasus baru yaitu pasien sepsis pada peritonitis generalisata yang datang ke IRD Bedah RSUP Sanglah sehingga jumlah total sampel 86 orang. Pasien kemudian diambil darah lengkap untuk nilai NLR dan kultur darah 2 sisi apakah hasilnya positif atau negatif. Data dianalisis menggunakan Stata/SE versi 12.1

Hasil:   Dari penelitian ini didapatkan sensitifitas NLR dibandingkan dengan kultur darah adalah sebesar 80% (CI: 63,1-91,6) dengan spesifitas 88,2% (CI: 76,1-95,6), nilai prediktif positif 82,4% (CI: 65,5-93,2), nilai prediktif negatif 86,5% (CI: 74,2-94,4) dan akurasi 84,9%, serta nilai likelihood ratio (LR) positif didapatkan 6,8>1. NLR mempunyai nilai yang besar dalam meprediksi terjadinya sepsis pada pasien peritonitis generalisata.

Simpulan: NLR dapat digunakan sebagai skrinning pasien sepsis pada peritonitis generalisata karena memiliki sensistifitas dan akurasi yang lebih baik tetapi tetap dikonfirmasi dengan kultur darah sebagai standar baku.

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