Research Article

Gambaran klinis akibat intoksikasi metanol pada pasien yang di rawat di RSUP Sanglah Denpasar tahun 2010-2015

Khairul Abrar , Dudut Rustyadi

Khairul Abrar
Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali-Indonesia. Email: khairul.netherdrake@gmail.com

Dudut Rustyadi
Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana-RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali-Indonesia
Online First: March 03, 2020 | Cite this Article
Abrar, K., Rustyadi, D. 2020. Gambaran klinis akibat intoksikasi metanol pada pasien yang di rawat di RSUP Sanglah Denpasar tahun 2010-2015. Intisari Sains Medis 11(1): 47-50. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i1.541


Introduction: Methanol is a colorless and odorless with a little chemical formula CH3OH. Methanol is also called methyl alcohol, wood spirit, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood and naphtha. Methanol for consumption was not allowed because methanol is not for consumption and the substances is toxic for the body. Compared to alcohol, methanol has a higher toxic dose. Alcohols toxic dose is 100 mg/dL and a minimum lethal dose of alcohol is 300 mg/dL, whereas methanol toxic dose of 100 mg/kg (10 mg/dL) and letal minimal 300-1000 dose mg/kg body weight (30-100 mg/dL). The main effect of methanol can be intoxicating, metabolic products can cause metabolic acidosis, blindness, and death after a latent period of 6-48 hours.

Method: The research data obtained from the Installation Medical Record Sanglah General Hospital by taking samples of patients suspected methanol poisoning based on medical records of patients in the form of medical records from 2010 to 2015. Sample already obtained 11 patient. Based on the results in this study, clinical organ damage in systemic samples, results of physical examination and lab tests shows that are interrelated. In patients with methanol poisoning can be found some characteristic changes in body organs both in general and microscopic. In almost all patients treated regularly consume alcohol and when it happens poisoning complaints and clinical symptoms are the same. Some disorders such as headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing often to be found in every case of methanol poisoning.

Conclusion: Symptoms caused by methanol poisoning are systemic, laboratory tests are very important because it provides an overview of the extent of organ damage that occurs.

 

Latar Belakang: Metanol adalah cairan tidak berwarna dan sedikit berbau dengan rumus kimia CH3OH. Metanol disebut juga methyl acohol, wood spirit, carbinol, wood alcohol, dan wood naphta. Penggunaan metanol untuk konsumsi tidak lah dibenarkan karena metanol adalah zat tidak layak konsumsi dan beracun bagi tubuh. Dibandingkan alkohol, metanol mempunyai dosis toksik yang lebih tinggi. Dosis toksik alkohol adalah 100 mg/dL dan dosis letal minimal alkohol adalah 300 mg/dL, sedangkan methanol dosis toksiknya 100 mg/kgBB (10 mg/dL) dan dosis letal minimal300-1000 mg/kgBB (30-100 mg/dL). Efek utama metanol dapat memabukkan, produk metaboliknya dapat menyebabkan asidosis metabolik, kebutaan, dan kematian setelah periode laten 6-48 jam.

Metode: Data penelitian didapatkan dari Instalasi Rekam Medis RSUP Sanglah dengan mengambil sampel pasien yang diduga keracunan metanol berdasar catatan medis pasien  dalam bentuk data rekam medis dari tahun 2010 hingga 2015. Didapatkan sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi sebanyak 11 pasien.

Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil dan pembahasan pada penelitian ini, maka dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa Gambaran Klinis kerusakan organ pada sampel bersifat sistemik, Hasil pemeriksaan fisik dan pemeriksaan lab menunjukan hasil yang saling terkait. Pada pasien keracunan metanol bisa ditemui beberapa karakteristik perubahan asam-basa dalam tubuh baik.  Pada hampir keseluruhan pasien yang di rawat rutin mengkonsumsi alcohol dan ketika terjadi keracunan memiliki keluhan dan gejala klinis yang sama. Beberapa gangguan seperti Nyeri kepala, penglihatan kabur, mual, muntah, hingga susah bernapas seringkali di temukan pada setiap kasus keracunan metanol.

Simpulan: Gejala yang diakibatkan oleh keracunan methanol bersifat sistemik, pemeriksaan laboratorium sangat penting dilakukan karena memberikan gambaran sejauh mana kerusakan organ tubuh yang terjadi.

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