Research Article

Profil penderita Diabetes Mellitus Tipe-2 (DM-2) dengan komplikasi yang menjalani rawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD) Klungkung, Bali tahun 2018

I Gede Restu Mahendra Sugiarta , I Gusti Ketut Darmita

I Gede Restu Mahendra Sugiarta
Dokter Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Email: dr.restumahendra@gmail.com

I Gusti Ketut Darmita
SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD) Klungkung, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: February 29, 2020 | Cite this Article
Sugiarta, I., Darmita, I. 2020. Profil penderita Diabetes Mellitus Tipe-2 (DM-2) dengan komplikasi yang menjalani rawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD) Klungkung, Bali tahun 2018. Intisari Sains Medis 11(1): 7-12. DOI:10.15562/ism.v11i1.515


Background: DM is a metabolic disease with the characteristic of hyperglycemia due to insulin abnormality, insulin action, or a combination of insulin abnormality and insulin action. Klungkung accounted for the third-largest prevalence of DM after Jembrana and Buleleng with 1.6%. Preliminary survey in Klungkung’s Hospital 2019, shown that the number of patients with T2DM with a complication that hospitalized in 2018 were 253 people.

Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to determine the proportion of T2DM patient with complication and average Length of Stay (LOS) T2DM patient with complication. This study was carried out at the medical record installation of Klungkung’s Hospital using secondary data obtained from medical record Klungkung’s Hospital. Samples were all T2DM patients with the complication that hospitalized with 253 samples using a total sampling method. Data were processed and analyzed using the SPSS version 21 for Windows.

Result: The highest proportion of T2DM patient with complication based on age was 61 to 70 years old (36.0%), based on sex was men (54.5%), based on complication was diabetic foot (18.2%), based on treatment was insulin (83.4%), based on discharged from hospital was outpatient treatment (90.5%), and based on source of cost was BPJS (94.9%). The average LOS for patients T2DM with complication was 5.81 day.

Conclusion: Effort needed to reduce the prevalence of T2DM with complication and needed maximum services in the management of T2DM with complication to prevent further worsening patient’s condition of T2DM with complication. One of them is giving strong education to patient regarding T2DM with complication.

 

Latar Belakang: DM merupakan penyakit metabolik dengan karakteristik berupa hiperglikemia akibat kelainan insulin, kerja insulin, atau kombinasi dari kelainan insulin dan kerja insulin. Klungkung menyumbang prevalensi DM terbesar ketiga setelah Jembrana dan Buleleng sebesar 1,6%. Survei pendahuluan di RSUD Klungkung 2019, mendapatkan jumlah penderita DMT2 beserta komplikasi yang dirawat inap tahun 2018 sebanyak 253 orang.

Metode :. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif cross sectional untuk mengetahui proporsi penderita DMT2 dengan komplikasi dan lama rawatan rata-rata penderita DMT2 dengan komplikasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di instalasi rekam medis RSUD Klungkung menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari catatan rekam medis di RSUD Klungkung. Sampel adalah semua penderita DMT2 dengan komplikasi yang dirawat inap dengan jumlah 253 orang menggunakan metode total sampling. Data diolah dan dianalisis menggunakan program SPSS versi 21 untuk Windows.

Hasil : Proporsi penderita DMT2 dengan komplikasi tertinggi pada umur 61 s/d 70 tahun (36,0%), jenis kelamin pada laki-laki (54,5%), komplikasi pada diabetic foot (18,2%), pengobatan pada insulin (83,4%), keadaan sewaktu pulang pada berobat jalan (90,5%), dan sumber biaya pada BPJS (94,9%). Lama rawatan rata-rata penderita DMT2 dengan komplikasi adalah 5,81 hari.

Kesimpulan: Diperlukan suatu upaya untuk menurunkan angka kejadian DMT2 dengan komplikasi serta memaksimalkan pelayanan dalam penatalaksanaan DMT2 dengan komplikasi untuk mencegah perburukan komplikasi penderita yang lebih lanjut. Salah satunya berupa pemberian edukasi yang kuat kepada penderita mengenai DMT2 beserta komplikasi.

References

Soelistijo SA, Novida H, Rudijanto A, Soewondo P, Suastika K, Manaf A, et al. Konsensus Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. Jakarta: PB PERKENI; 2015:1-93

Kalyani RR, Golden SH, Cefalu WT. Diabetes and Aging: Unique Considerations and Goals of Care. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(4):440-443.

Gao HX, Regier EE, Close KL. Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988-2012. J Diabetes. 2016;8(1):8-9.

Artha IMJR, Bhargah A, Dharmawan NK, Pande UW, Triyana KA, Mahariski PA, et al. High level of individual lipid profile and lipid ratio as a predictive marker of poor glycemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019;15:149-157.

Ligita T, Wicking K, Francis K, Harvey N, Nurjannah I. How people living with diabetes in Indonesia learn about their disease: A grounded theory study. PLoS One. 2019;14(2):e0212019.

Suastika K, Dwipayana P, Saraswati IMR, Gotera W, Budhiarta AAG, Sutanegara IND, et al. An epidemiological study on obesity, glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome in population of Bali, Indonesia. Diabetes. 2010;59(Suppl 1): A608

Nainggolan SY, Hiswani, Lubis SN. Karakteristik Penderita Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 dengan Komplikasi yang Dirawat Inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Haji Adam Malik Medan Tahun 2016. Jurnal Gizi, Kesehatan Reproduksi, dan Epidemiologi. 2017;1(2):1-10.

Zheng Y, Ley SH, Hu FB. Global Aetiology and Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14(2):88-98

Kurniawaty E, Yanita B. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan dengan kejadian Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. Majority. 2016;5(2):27-31.

Suastika K, Dwipayana P, Semadi MS, Kuswardhani RAT. Age is an Important Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases. Glucose Tolerance: Intech Open. 2012:67-76

Powers AC. Diabetes Mellitus. In Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principle of Internal Medicine. 18 Rev. Ed USA: McGrawHill; 2012:2968-3002.

Todkar SS. Diabetes Mellitus the “Silent Killer” of Mankind: An Overview on the Eve up Upcoming World Health Day. J Med Allied Sci. 2016;6(1):39-44

Ojobi JE, Odoh G, Aniekwensi E, Dunge J. Mortality among Type 2 Diabetic in-patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. African Journal of Diabetes Medicine. 2016;24(2):17-19.

Chen D, Liu S, Tan X, Zhao Q. Assessment of Hospital Length of Stay and Direct Costs of Type 2 Diabetes in Hubei Province China. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):199.


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 980
PDF Downloads : 808