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Karakteristik anafilaksis pada anak di rumah sakit umum pusat Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Denpasar

Abstract

Background: Anaphylaxis is a hypersensitivity reaction characterized by symptoms that occur upon exposure to an allergic or non-allergic trigger. There are notable distinctions between the characteristics of anaphylaxis in children and adults, particularly in terms of etiology and clinical symptoms. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of anaphylaxis in children patients at the Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Hospital of Denpasar.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional descriptive study design. Data was derived from the medical records of children patients between 28 days and 18 years of age diagnosed with anaphylaxis from 2020 to 2022. The sample selection employed a comprehensive sampling technique, encompassing all population members.

Results: In this study, 33 cases fulfilled the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. This subset collected data on anaphylactic reactions in 21 patients (63,6%). The remaining 11 patients experienced anaphylactic shock (36,3%). The most prevalent allergen causing anaphylaxis in children was found to be drugs (69,7%), followed by skin-mucosal and respiratory symptoms (90,9%), childhood age group 1-12 years (57,6%), female (63,6%), and atopy history (22,3%). Based on the research findings, the proportion of anaphylaxis in children patients is 26,7%.

Conclusion: The predominant characteristics of anaphylactic primarily involve drug, skin-mucosal, and respiratory symptoms. They are typically comprised of children between the ages of 1 and 12, female, and devoid of any previous history of atopy.

 

Latar belakang: Anafilaksis merupakan reaksi hipersensitivitas dengan onset cepat dan memiliki gejala yang tampak secara objektif dengan diawali oleh pajanan terhadap suatu stimulus baik alergi maupun nonalergi. Karakteristik anafilaksis pada anak memiliki banyak perbedaan dalam etiologi maupun gejala klinis dari orang dewasa. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik anafilaksis pada anak di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Prof. dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan studi deskriptif potong lintang. Data diambil dari rekam medis pasien anak usia lebih dari 28 hari dan kurang dari sama dengan 18 tahun dengan diagnosis anafilaksis yang tercatat dalam rekam medis di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Denpasar pada periode tahun 2020 hingga 2022. Penetuan sampel menggunakan teknik total sampling dengan semua anggota populasi dijadikan sampel.

Hasil: Pada penelitian ini, terdapat 33 sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi, didapatkan data distribusi anafilaksis terjadi pada 21 pasien (63,7%) dengan 11 pasien lainnya mengalami syok anafilaksis (36,3 %). Distribusi karakteristik pada pasien anafilaksis pada anak didapatkan alergen penyebab paling umum adalah obat (69,7%), gejala pada kulit-mukosa serta respirasi (90,9 %), kelompok usia kanak-kanak lebih dari 1-12 tahun (57,6%), perempuan (63,6%), dan riwayat atopi (22,3%). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa proporsi kejadian anafilaksis pada anak adalah 26,7%.

Kesimpulan: Karakteristik pasien anafilakssis anak paling banyak mengalami derajat keparahan pada anafilaksis ringan-sedang, disebabkan oleh obat, gejala pada kulit-mukosa serta respirasi, usia kanak-kanak 1- 12 tahun, perempuan, dan tidak memiliki riwayat atopi.

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How to Cite

Rachmawati, L. N., Witarini, K. A., Mahalini, D. S., & Mayangsari, A. S. M. . (2024). Karakteristik anafilaksis pada anak di rumah sakit umum pusat Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G. Ngoerah Denpasar. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 255–260. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v15i1.1942

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Lidiya Nuraliza Rachmawati
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Komang Ayu Witarini
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Dewi Sutriani Mahalini
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Ayu Setyorini Mestika Mayangsari
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