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Rehabilitasi pada congenital heart failure: sebuah tinjauan pustaka

Abstract

Background: Based on statistics, the incidence of heart failure (HF) in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients is not yet known, but HF is reported to occur in around 5% of pediatric patients with CHD. Patients with congenital heart failure (CHF) are often found to experience limitations in physical activity, which causes developmental delays, especially in terms of motor and cognitive impairments, as well as affecting the patient's psychosocial abilities due to activity limitations. This literature review discusses rehabilitation in patients with CHF.

Methods: Observational study by a comprehensive search for online literature or studies in 2023. We explored evidence using the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The keywords used to obtain the relevant research include “Rehabilitation” OR “Congenital Heart Failure” AND “Heart Failure” AND “Pediatric” AND “Heart Disease”. The literature was analyzed based on the results of previous studies.

Result: The rehabilitation phase in patients with CHF is generally the same as in pediatric patients with other congenital heart diseases. The rehabilitation phase consists of two phases, namely, the phase during hospital treatment (inpatient) and the phase after discharge from the hospital (outpatient). Several studies suggest that participation of patients aged 8-17 years with CHD in a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation program of one hour twice a week results in significant improvements in exercise capacity. The VO2Max value increased from 26.4 to 30.7 mL/kg per minute, and the anaerobic ventilation limit increased from 26.4 to 30.7 mL/kg per minute.

Conclusion: CHF rehabilitation is a rehabilitation program that requires collaboration between various scientific disciplines, which is carried out from the time the patient is hospitalized due to heart failure or after surgery due to CHD until the patient is discharged from the hospital.

 

Latar belakang: Berdasarkan statistik, kejadian heart failure (HF) pada pasien congenital heart diseases (CHD) belum diketahui, namun HF dilaporkan terjadi pada sekitar 5% pasien anak dengan CHD. Pasien dengan congenital heart failure (CHF) seringkali ditemukan mengalami keterbatasan dalam aktivitas fisik yang menyebabkan keterlambatan perkembangan, utamanya dari segi motorik dan gangguan kognitif serta mempengaruhi kemampuan psikososial pasien karena keterbatasan aktivitas. Tinjauan pustaka ini membahas mengenai rehabilitasi pada pasien dengan CHF.

Metode Penelitian: Penelitian observasional dengan melakukan pencarian komprehensif untuk literatur atau studi online pada tahun 2023. Telah dilakukan eksplorasi bukti menggunakan database  dari Cochrane Library, PubMed, dan Google Scholar. Kata kunci yang digunakan untuk memperoleh penelitian yang relevan antara lain “Rehabilitasi” ATAU “Congenital Heart Failure” DAN “Heart Failure” DAN “Pediatri” DAN “Heart Disease”. Literatur dianalisis berdasarkan hasil penelitian sebelumnya.

Hasil: Fase rehabilitasi pada pasien dengan CHF secara umum sama dengan pasien anak dengan penyakit jantung kongenital lainnya. Fase rehabilitasi terdiri atas dua fase yakni fase saat perawatan di rumah sakit (inpatient) dan fase setelah keluar dari rumah sakit (outpatient). Beberapa studi menyebutkan bahwa partisipasi pasien berusia 8-17 tahun dengan CHD dalam program rehabilitasi jantung selama 12 minggu dengan durasi satu jam dua kali seminggu menghasilkan perbaikan yang signifikan pada kapasitas latihan. Nilai VO2Max meningkat dari 26,4 menjadi 30,7 mL/kg per menit dan batas ventilasi anaerobik meningkat dari 26,4 menjadi 30,7 mL/kg per menit.

Simpulan: Rehabilitasi CHF merupakan program rehabilitasi yang memerlukan kerjasama berbagai disiplin ilmu yang dilakukan mulai dari saat pasien dirawat di rumah sakit karena kondisi gagal jantung atau pasca tindakan pembedahan akibat CHD hingga pasien dipulangkan dari rumah sakit.

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How to Cite

Putra, M. S. S. (2023). Rehabilitasi pada congenital heart failure: sebuah tinjauan pustaka. Intisari Sains Medis, 14(3), 1195–1203. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v14i3.1912

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Made Saskaprabawanta Sukmana Putra
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