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A rare case report: compartment syndrome after brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula formation in a hemodialysis patient


Introduction: Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure in the tight fascia space reduces capillary perfusion below the level required for tissue viability. Very few cases of acute compartment syndrome associated with dialysis have been reported. It can lead to severe damage to the tissues of the arm.

Case Illustration: A 47-year-old woman with end-stage renal failure presented to the emergency room with swelling and pain in the right upper extremity and has lasted for a day. Three days before admission, the patient underwent right brachiocephalic arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery. Physical Examination showed a blackish bruise at the fossa cubiti, radial and ulnar artery were not palpable, but there is trill at AV fistula. Decreased motoric strength, reduced hand sensation and decreased capillary return in fingers. Oxygen blood saturation of the right fingers could not be read. Diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was made. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room for decompression surgery. Emergency compartment fasciotomy was performed. After fasciotomy, necrotomy was performed. Furthermore, brachiocephalic AV fistula was ligated. Postoperative evaluation obtained good radial and ulnar artery. Six months after the surgery, the wound was fully healed and no sign of neuromuscular or vascular deficit.

Conclusion: Compartment syndrome is a possible complication after AV fistula formation that can have disastrous consequences. However, it can be effectively treated if detected and treated early. Prognosis of compartment syndrome after fasciotomy depends on how quickly the condition is diagnosed and treated.


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How to Cite

Aksar, S. M., & Usman, U. . (2023). A rare case report: compartment syndrome after brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula formation in a hemodialysis patient. Intisari Sains Medis, 14(3), 1259–1261.




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