Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Deteksi resistensi karbapenem secara fenotip dan genotip isolat Pseudomonas aeruginosa di Rumah Sakit Pendidikan Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar

  • Arthur Hugo ,
  • Yoeke Dewi Rasita ,
  • Mochammad Hatta ,
  • Baedah Madjid ,
  • Rizalinda Sjahril ,
  • Ilhamjaya Patellongi ,


Background: Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is currently one of the top priorities studied by the World Health Organization (WHO). Antimicrobial resistance can be detected using both phenotyping and genotyping methods. This study presents data on Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to carbapenems collected from two teaching hospitals in Makassar Region, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, both phenotypically and genotypically, and also detects the OprD porin coding gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Methods: A total of 80 isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from two teaching hospitals of Hasanuddin University Makassar, which had been phenotyped for susceptibility and resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), were retested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the carbapenemase genes IMP, VIM, OXA-48, OXA-51 and OXA-23 carried by these bacteria.

Results: Of the 80 isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), 24 isolates were phenotypically resistant to imipenem and meropenem. In PCR examination, 16.3% of isolates were detected to have carbapenemase coding genes IMP and 1.3% OXA-51, only 1.3% of isolates did not have the OprD porin coding gene.

Conclusion: Data on P. aeruginosa resistance both phenotypically and genotypically are expected to be a reference for consideration of clinicians in the administration of antibiotics, mostly the carbapenem group in hospitals, especially in the Makassar Region, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.


Latar belakang: Resistensi antimikroba pada Pseudomonas aeruginosa saat ini merupakan salah satu prioritas utama yang dikaji oleh World Health Organization (WHO). Resistensi antimikroba dapat dapat dideteksi baik menggunakan metode fenotip maupun metode genotip. Studi ini menyajikan data resistensi Pseudomonas aeruginosa terhadap golongan karbapenem yang dikumpulkan dari dua rumah sakit pendidikan di Wilayah Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia, baik secara fenotip maupun genotip, serta mendeteksi gen pengkode porin OprD Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Metode: Total 80 isolat Pseudomonas aeruginosa yang dikumpulkan dari dua rumah sakit pendidikan Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar telah diketahui suseptibilitas dan resistensinya terhadap karbapenem (imipenem dan meropenem) secara fenotip, diuji kembali dengan metode polymerase chain reaction (PCR) untuk mendeteksi gen karbapenemase IMP, VIM, OXA-48, OXA-51 dan OXA-23 yang dibawa oleh bakteri ini.

Hasil: Dari 80 isolat Pseudomonas aeruginosa resisten karbapenem terdapat 24  isolat resisten terhadap imipenem dan meropenem secara fenotip. Pada pemeriksaan PCR ditemukan 16,3% isolat terdeteksi memiliki gen pengkode karbapenemase IMP dan 1,3% OXA-51, hanya 1,3% isolat yang tidak memiliki gen pengkode porin OprD.

Simpulan: Data resistensi P. aeruginosa baik secara fenotipik dan genotipik diharapkan menjadi acuan untuk menjadi pertimbangan para klinisi dalam pemberian antibiotik terutama golongan karbapenem di rumah sakit, khususnya di wilayah Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia.


  1. Vivo A, Fitzpatrick MA, Suda KJ, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2022;22(1):491.
  2. Qin S, Xiao W, Zhou C, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: pathogenesis, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, interaction with host, technology advances and emerging therapeutics. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2022;7(1):199.
  3. Wahjudi M, Widodo SS, Artadana IBM, Antonius Y. The character of PA3235 virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 – a preliminary study. Bali Medical Journal. 2023;12(2):1368-1376.
  4. Ben Hur D, Kapach G, Wani NA, et al. Antimicrobial peptides against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from cystic fibrosis patients. J Med Chem. 2022;65(13):9050-9062.
  5. Wedari NLPH, Budayanti NNS, Darwinata AE. Clostridium difficile virulence factors as the cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD): a literature review. Bali Medical Journal. 2022;11(3):1277-1281.
  6. She P, Wang Y, Luo Z, et al. Meloxicam inhibits biofilm formation and enhances antimicrobial agents efficacy by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiologyopen. 2018;7(1):e00545.
  7. Idigo AJ, Wells JM, Brown ML, et al. Clinical risk factors for admission with Pseudomonas and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas community-acquired pneumonia. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2022;11(1):95.
  8. Yamasaki S, Zwama M, Yoneda T, Hayashi-Nishino M, Nishino K. Drug resistance and physiological roles of RND multidrug efflux pumps in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology (Reading). 2023;169(6):001322. doi:10.1099/mic.0.001322
  9. He Y, Wu L, Liao P, Shen L, Yang H. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of multi-drug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infections of non-catheterized and catheterized Chinese patients: A descriptive study over 3 years. Medicine (Baltimore). 2022;101(47):e31373.
  10. Abbas HA, El-Ganiny AM, Kamel HA. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infections. Afr Health Sci. 2018;18(1):11-21.
  11. Bassetti M, Vena A, Croxatto A, Righi E, Guery B. How to manage Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Drugs Context. 2018;7:212527.
  12. Budayanti NNS, Aryana IGPS, Wedari NLPH. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain: a comprehensive review of toxigenicity, pathogenesis, risk factors, and preventative measures. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Diseases. 2022; 10(1):7-21.
  13. Furtuna DK, Debora K, Wasito EB. Antimicrobial susceptibility and the pattern of a biofilm-forming pair of organisms from patients treated in intensive care units in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal. 2019;8(1): 51-58.
  14. Clough SE, Jousset A, Elphinstone JG, Friman VP. Combining in vitro and in vivo screening to identify efficient Pseudomonas biocontrol strains against the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Microbiology open. 2022;11(2):e1283. doi:10.1002/mbo3.1283
  15. Maier C, Hofmann K, Huptas C, Scherer S, Wenning M, Lücking G. Simultaneous quantification of the most common and proteolytic Pseudomonas species in raw milk by multiplex qPCR. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021;105(4):1693-1708.
  16. Camus L, Vandenesch F, Moreau K. From genotype to phenotype: adaptations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis environment. Microb Genom. 2021;7(3):mgen000513.
  17. Besse A, Groleau MC, Trottier M, Vincent AT, Déziel E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from both clinical and environmental origins readily adopt a stable small-colony-variant phenotype resulting from single mutations in c-di-GMP pathways. J Bacteriol. 2022;204(10):e0018522.
  18. Li F, Chen D, Li L, Liang D, Wang F, Zhang B. Analysis of metallo-β-lactamases, oprD mutation, and multidrug resistance of β-lactam antibiotic-resistantsStrains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Southern China. Curr Microbiol. 2020;77(11):3264-3269.
  19. Kiani M, Astani A, Eslami G, et al. Upstream region of OprD mutations in imipenem-resistant and imipenem-sensitive Pseudomonas isolates. AMB Express. 2021;11(1):82.
  20. Liu H, Kong W, Yang W, Chen G, Liang H, Zhang Y. Multilocus sequence typing and variations in the oprD gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a hospital in China. Infect Drug Resist. 2018;11:45-54.
  21. Xu Y, Zheng X, Zeng W, et al. Mechanisms of heteroresistance and resistance to imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Drug Resist. 2020;13:1419-1428.
  22. Shariati A, Azimi T, Ardebili A, et al. Insertional inactivation of oprD in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. New Microbes New Infect. 2017;21:75-80.

How to Cite

Hugo, A. ., Rasita, Y. D. ., Hatta, M. ., Baedah Madjid, Sjahril, R. ., & Patellongi, I. . (2023). Deteksi resistensi karbapenem secara fenotip dan genotip isolat Pseudomonas aeruginosa di Rumah Sakit Pendidikan Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar. Intisari Sains Medis, 14(3), 1044–1048.




Search Panel