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Clinical and laboratory features of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children

  • Sang Ayu Prabha Amandari Sutyandi ,
  • Gusti Ayu Putu Nilawati ,
  • Bagus Ngurah Mahakrishna ,
  • I Made Karma Setiyawan ,


Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) is a common infection in children and a significant problem in Indonesia. Epidemiological data in developing countries are not widely available. This study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of UTIs in hospitalized children.

Methods: A retrospective study at a tertiary hospital in Denpasar–Bali. Children diagnosed with UTIs from January 1st, 2021–December 31st, 2022 were enrolled. Subjects are characterized based on age, nutritional status, and comorbidity. Clinical and laboratory features were described.

Results: There were 84 children diagnosed with UTIs. A total of 30 subjects (35.7%) were <1–year-old and mostly female (52.4%). Most subjects (47.6%) were well–nourished and had comorbidities (92.9%) from a non-kidney disease (65.5%). Eight (9.5%) of the 52 subjects had hypertension. The most common symptom in the < 1–year–old group was jaundice (50%). The predominant symptom in the 1–5–year–old group was also fever (71.4%). Localized symptoms in the > 5–year–old groups showed dysuria (38.5%), urinary retention (30.8%), and frequency (26.9%). Urinalysis showed 30 subjects (35.7%) with positive nitrites and pyuria (66.7%). Leukocytosis was found in 24 subjects (72%) with a median NLR of 1.8. Abnormalities found in imaging examinations were cystitis (19.2%), hydronephrosis (42.1%), and hydroureter (11.5%).  

Conclusion: Age < 1–year–old, female, had comorbidities with predominant symptom was fever found in hospitalized UTIs. Half of the subjects had leukocytosis, abnormalities in urinalysis, and urology imaging. However, further research is needed to know the association and risk factors for UTIs in hospitalized children.


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How to Cite

Sutyandi, S. A. P. A., Nilawati, G. A. P. ., Mahakrishna, B. N. ., & Setiyawan, I. M. K. . (2023). Clinical and laboratory features of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children. Intisari Sains Medis, 14(3), 966–970.




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Sang Ayu Prabha Amandari Sutyandi
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Gusti Ayu Putu Nilawati
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Bagus Ngurah Mahakrishna
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I Made Karma Setiyawan
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