Background: Bladder stone is a rare disease accounting for 5% of all urinary calculi. It is more common in middle- and low-income countries due to nutritional obstacles, water sanitation, and warm climates. Primary bladder calculi are most common in children younger than 10 years old, with a peak incidence at 2 to 4 years. There have been no reports of bladder stones in children under 2 years of age. This case study aims to evaluate the bladder stone in a 1-year infant with recurrent urinary tract infections.
Case Presentation: An infant boy 1 year and 2 months presented with a 6-month history of complaints of pain on micturition presented with pulling the penis, cloudy urine, and recurrent fever in our clinic. During the 6 months before admission, he visited several pediatric clinics and was diagnosed with and treated for UTI. On ultrasonography, we found a bladder stone 1,9 x 1,3 cm in size. Then we performed open cystolithotomy under general anesthesia. One day after surgery, the patient was discharged from the hospital.
Conclusion: Children who live in endemic areas are more likely to develop bladder stones due to dietary issues. Preventing dehydration, treating urinary tract infections effectively, and securing metabolic abnormalities are the methods for reducing the prevalence of pediatric bladder stones. Pediatric bladder stones must be diagnosed and treated to avoid the stones' recurrence and improve quality of life.