Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease characterized by enlargement of the heart ventricles with impaired left ventricular or biventricular systolic function. Obesity is a risk factor for changes in the structure and function of the heart, known as obese cardiomyopathy. The purpose of writing this case report is to holistically discuss obesity as a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy based on a literature review.
Case presentation: A 24-year-old woman complained of shortness of breath 2 months ago, appeared during activities and while she slept at night, and improved when sitting and resting. Other complaints are palpitations, swollen feet, nausea, and vomiting. Childhood history of obesity. Blood pressure 160/95 mmHg, respiratory rate 22 times/minute, and body mass index 33.8 kg/m2 (obesity II). The jugular venous pressure is increased. Auscultation revealed a systolic murmur at ICS 4 grade 3/6 and pulmonary crackles, with pitting edema in the legs. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia. Laboratory tests showed high triglycerides and total cholesterol, and other laboratories were within normal limits. Echocardiographic examination showed decreased left ventricular systolic function, severe left ventricular dilatation, and an ejection fraction of 27.9%. No significant lesions were found during the angiographic examination. A magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, moderate left ventricular dysfunction, and severe right ventricular dysfunction. Patients were given heart failure therapy according to guidelines. On routine control, the patient's condition was stable.
Conclusion: Obesity is believed to be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy through an increased hemodynamic load, neurohormonal dysregulation, inflammation, and lipotoxicity. Modalities such as the electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging can support the results of examinations for diagnosing dilated cardiomyopathy due to obesity. The management of obese cardiomyopathy involves changing lifestyles and administering drugs according to the clinical manifestations of heart failure.