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Potensi ekstrak daun kamboja putih (Plumeria alba) sebagai biolarvasida nyamuk Aedes aegypti

Abstract

Background: The prevention of high incidences of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia is influenced by the control of Aedes aegypti as a disease vector. Chemical larvicides can lead to resistance. Therefore, natural methods are needed to avoid these unwanted effects. This study was conducted to test the effect of a biolarvicidal extract of white frangipani leaves (Plumeria alba) against the larvae of Aedes aegypti.

Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University from January 2022 to December 2022. The variable studied was frangipani leaf extract (Plumeria alba), which was divided into 4 concentrations: 10,000 ppm, 5,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm, and 1,000 ppm, and its effect on the mortality rate of Aedes aegypti at 24 and 48 hours of observation. Logit analytical test was carried out to assess the LC50 and LC90 of the biolarvicide.

Results: The experimental and control groups consisted of 20 larvae. The highest percentage of death occurred at a concentration of 10,000 ppm at 48 hours of observation (0.068%). Significant differences were found in larvae mortality at the 24th and 48th hour, between doses of 10,000 ppm and 1,000 ppm (p=0.01 and p=0.00) and between doses of 10,000 ppm and control (p=0.03 and p=0.01). Significant differences were also found in the mortality between the 0th hour and the 48th hour, at concentrations of 10,000 ppm, 5,000 ppm, and 2,000 ppm (p=0.00, p=0.03, and p=0.02, respectively). The LC90 at the 24th and 48th hours were 39,108 ppm and 19,852 ppm, indicating that concentrations used in this study could not kill 90% of the larvae population in the actual test.

Conclusion: White frangipani leaves (Plumeria alba) with these concentrations have no potential as biolarvicidal of Aedes aegypti.

 

Latar Belakang: Pencegahan peningkatan insiden kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) yang tinggi di Indonesia dipengaruhi oleh pengendalian nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor. Pengendalian menggunakan larvasida kimiawi menyebabkan efek resistensi dari target basmi sehingga diperlukan metode alami untuk menghindari efek resistensi tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji biolarvasida dari ekstrak daun kamboja putih (Plumeria alba) terhadap kematian larva nyamuk Aedes aegypti.

Metode: Penelitian menggunakan rancangan eksperiemental murni yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana pada bulan Januari 2022 hingga Desember 2022. Variabel yang diteliti adalah ekstrak daun kamboja (Plumeria alba) yang terbagi atas 4 konsentrasi, yaitu 10.000 ppm, 5.000 ppm, 2.000 ppm, dan 1.000 ppm serta efeknya pada angka mortalitas larva Aedes aegypti pada waktu pengamatan 24 jam dan 48 jam. Uji Logit dilakukan untuk menilai LC50 dan LC90 dari ekstrak daun kamboja putih.

Hasil: Kelompok eksperimen dan kontrol terdiri dari 20 larva nyamuk. Persentase kematian tertinggi terjadi pada konsentrasi 10.000 ppm pada pengamatan 48 jam (0,068%). Perbedaan signifikan didapatkan pada kematian larva pada jam 24 dan 48 jam antara dosis 10.000 ppm dengan 1.000 ppm (p=0,01 dan p=0,00) dan 10.000 dengan kontrol negatif (p=0,03 dan p=0,01). Perbedaan signifikan juga didapatkan pada kematian larva nyamuk antara jam ke-0 dibandingkan dengan jam ke-48, pada konsentrasi 10.000 ppm, 5.000 ppm, dan 2.000 ppm (p=0,00, p=0,03, p=0,02). Uji LC90 pada jam ke-24 dan jam ke-48 adalah 39.108 ppm dan 19.852 ppm, menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi pada penelitian tidak dapat mematikan 90% populasi larva pada uji sesungguhnya.

Simpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa daun kamboja putih (Plumeria alba) dengan konsentrasi ini belum berpotensi sebagai biolarvasida nyamuk Aedes aegypti.

References

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How to Cite

Wikananda, I. G. N. A. N., Sudarmaja, I. M., Swastika, I. K., & Diarthini, N. L. P. E. (2024). Potensi ekstrak daun kamboja putih (Plumeria alba) sebagai biolarvasida nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 184–188. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v15i1.1598

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I Gusti Ngurah Agung Natha Wikananda
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I Made Sudarmaja
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I Kadek Swastika
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Ni Luh Putu Eka Diarthini
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