Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Diagnosis dan tatalaksana massa di mediastinum anterior


The mediastinum is an anatomical space between the lungs that houses the thymus, heart, great vessels, lymph nodes, nerves, and parts of the esophagus and trachea. One of the biggest problems of the mediastinal cavity is mediastinal tumors. Mediastinal tumors have a wide variety of clinical conditions. Difficulties in diagnosing masses in the anterior mediastinal caused by non-specific symptoms and various etiologies can make it difficult to determine the best management for patients. Some masses in the anterior mediastinum that need to be known are thymoma, lipoma, lymphangioma, carcinoma and adenoma. This article aims to describe the various etiologies of masses in the anterior mediastinum along with the management that can be done so that clinicians can provide better treatment.


Mediastinum merupakan sebuah ruang anatomi antara paru-paru yang menampung timus, jantung, pembuluh darah besar, kelenjar getah bening, saraf, dan bagian kerongkongan dan trakea. Salah satu masalah terbesar dari rongga mediastinum yaitu tumor mediastinum. Tumor mediastinum memiliki keragaman yang luas dari kondisi klinis penyakit. Kesulitan dalam mendiagnosis massa pada mediastinal anterior disebabkan oleh gejala yang tidak spesifik dan etiologi yang beragam dapat menjadi penyulit dalam menentukan tatalaksana terbaik bagi pasien. Beberapa massa di mediastinum anterior yang perlu diketahui ialah timoma, lipoma, limfangioma karsinoma dan adenoma. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan berbagai etiologi dari massa di mediastinum anterior disertai tatalaksana yang dapat dilakukan sehingga klinisi dapat memberikan penanganan yang lebih baik.


  1. Juanpere S, Cañete N, Ortuño P, Martínez S, Sanchez G, Bernado L. A diagnostic approach to the mediastinal masses. Insights Imaging. 2012/12/06. 2013;4(1):29–52. Available from:
  2. Stoddard N, Heil J, Lowery D. Anatomy, Thorax, Mediastinum. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing [internet]; 2021.
  3. Muslim Z, Baig MZ, Weber JF, Detterbeck FC, Connery CP, Spera JA, et al. Invasive thymoma – Which patients benefit from post-operative radiotherapy? Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2021;29(9):935–42. Available from:
  4. Comacchio GM, Marulli G, Mammana M, Natale G, Schiavon M, Rea F. Surgical Decision Making. Thorac Surg Clin. 2019;29(2):203–13. Available from:
  5. Scorsetti M, Leo F, Trama A, D’Angelillo R, Serpico D, Macerelli M, et al. Thymoma and thymic carcinomas. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;99:332–50. Available from:
  6. Ahmad U. The eighth edition TNM stage classification for thymic tumors: What do I need to know? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021;161(4):1524–9. Available from:
  7. Addis BJ, den Bakker MA. Classifying thymomas. Histopathology. 2008;52(6):759–66. Available from:
  8. Koppitz H, Rockstroh JK, Schüller H, Standop J, Skowasch D, Müller-Hermelink HK, et al. State-of-the-art classification and multimodality treatment of malignant thymoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012;38(5):540–8. Available from:
  9. Mikhail M, Mekhail Y, Mekhail T. Thymic Neoplasms: a Clinical Update. Curr Oncol Rep. 2012;14(4):350–8. Available from:
  10. Hamanaka K, Koyama T, Matsuoka S, Takeda T, Miura K, Yamada K, et al. Analysis of surgical treatment of Masaoka stage III-IV thymic epithelial tumors. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018;66(12):731–5. Available from:
  11. Friedant AJ, Handorf EA, Su S, Scott WJ. Minimally Invasive versus Open Thymectomy for Thymic Malignancies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Thorac Oncol. 2016;11(1):30–8. Available from:
  12. Ruffini E, Filosso PL, Guerrera F, Lausi P, Lyberis P, Oliaro A. Optimal surgical approach to thymic malignancies: New trends challenging old dogmas. Lung Cancer. 2018;118:161–70. Available from:
  13. Luo T, Zhao H, Zhou X. The clinical features, diagnosis and management of recurrent thymoma. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;11(1):140. Available from:
  14. Sakurai H, Kaji M, Yamazaki K, Suemasu K. Intrathoracic Lipomas: Their Clinicopathological Behaviors Are Not As Straightforward as Expected. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(1):261–5. Available from:
  15. Zhu C-M, Chang L, Ge X-S, Yuan X-Y, Cao L. Intrapulmonary lipoma: a case report and literature review. World J Pediatr. 2015;11(2):185–7. Available from:
  16. Eryılmaz MA, Yücel A, Yücel H, Arıcıgil M. Cervico-Thoracic Giant Lipoma in a Child. Turkish Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016/06/01. 2016;54(2):82–5. Available from:
  17. Siddiqi MS, Al Kindi AH, Al Marhoon M, Salem A. Giant Intrathoracic Lipoma. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2021/11/25. 2021;21(4):670–2. Available from:
  18. Johnson CN, Ha AS, Chen E, Davidson D. Lipomatous Soft-tissue Tumors. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2018;26(22):779–88. Available from:
  19. Aldahmashi M, Elmadawy A, Mahdy M, Alaa M. The largest reported intrathoracic lipoma: a case report and current perspectives review. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019;14(1):215. Available from:
  20. Machado NN, Wilhelm SM. Parathyroid Cancer: A Review. Cancers (Basel). 2019;11(11):1676. Available from:
  21. Marcocci C, Cetani F, Rubin MR, Silverberg SJ, Pinchera A, Bilezikian JP. Parathyroid carcinoma. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(12):1869–80. Available from:
  22. Iwata T, Inoue K, Morita R, Mizuguchi S, Tsukioka T, Onoda N, et al. Functional large parathyroid carcinoma extending into the superior mediastinum. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Off J Assoc Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Asia. 2008;14(2):112–5.
  23. Mitsuboshi S, Maeda H, Aoshima H, Isaka T, Matsumoto T, Onizuka H, et al. Thoracoscopic surgical case of an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma detected by chance: a case report. BMC Surg. 2019;19(1):171. Available from:
  24. Shane E. Parathyroid Carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol & Metab. 2001;86(2):485–93. Available from:
  25. Givi B, Shah JP. Parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2010/05/26. 2010;22(6):498–507. Available from:
  26. Fingeret AL. Contemporary Evaluation and Management of Parathyroid Carcinoma. JCO Oncol Pract. 2021;17(1):17–21. Available from:
  27. Wilkins BJ, Lewis Jr JS. Non-functional parathyroid carcinoma: a review of the literature and report of a case requiring extensive surgery. Head Neck Pathol. 2009/04/28. 2009;3(2):140–9. Available from:
  28. Gao WC, Ruan CP, Zhang JC, Liu HM, Xu XY, Sun YP, et al. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;136(7):969–74. Available from:
  29. Putri RI, Makes B. Parathyroid carcinoma: review of a problematic case. Med J Indones. 2012;170. Available from:
  30. Cao C, Dou C, Chen F, Wang Y, Zhang X, Lai H. An unusual mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma coproducing PTH and PTHrP: A case report. Oncol Lett. 2016/05/09. 2016;11(6):4113–6. Available from:
  31. Swetha N, Sasankh RK, Annapurneswari S, Chandrasekaran M. Giant Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma of the Mediastinum Causing Primary Hyperparathyroidism - A Rare Case Report with Review of Literature. Int J Pathol Clin Res. 2020;6(1). Available from:
  32. Kitada M, Yasuda S, Nana T, Ishibashi K, Hayashi S, Okazaki S. Surgical treatment for mediastinal parathyroid adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;11:44. Available from:
  33. Vaidya A, Gouri M, Sudha HM, Mysorekar V, Balekudura A. Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma Presenting as a Mediastinal Mass. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017/05/01. 2017;11(5):ED40–2. Available from:
  34. Toktaş O, İliklerden Ü, Yerlikaya B, Kotan Ç, Batur A. Transcervical resection of two parathyroid adenomas located on the anterior mediastinum. Turkish J Surg. 2018;34(3):247–9. Available from:
  35. Sagan D, Goździuk K. Surgical Treatment of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma: Rationale for Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89(6):1750–5. Available from:
  36. Isaacs KE, Belete S, Miller BJ, Di Marco AN, Kirby S, Barwick T, et al. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. BJS open. 2019;3(6):743–9. Available from:
  37. Navarro A, Vassallo J, Galea J. Excision of an Elusive Tiny Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma. Case Rep Oncol. 2017;10(3):1105–11. Available from:

How to Cite

Damayanti, N. M. A., & Dini, M. A. R. (2023). Diagnosis dan tatalaksana massa di mediastinum anterior. Intisari Sains Medis, 14(1), 304–309.




Search Panel

Ni Made Ayu Damayanti
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Merlynda Ayu Rara Dini
Google Scholar
ISM Journal