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Kadar feritin yang rendah merupakan faktor risiko melasma pada wanita

Abstract

Introduction: Melasma is an acquired pigmentation disorder characterized by symmetrical hyperpigmented patches, most commonly seen on the face. Melasma and iron deficiency are most common in women of reproductive age. Iron deficiency causes a decrease in ferritin levels, which are iron stores in the body. The mechanism of iron deficiency causing melasma is thought to be due to cell hypoxia in the tissue involving mediators that increase melanogenesis. This study aims to prove that the mean ferritin level is lower in melasma than without melasma and that low ferritin levels are a risk factor for melasma in women.

Methods: A case-control research included 28 participants with melasma and 28 without melasma who visited the dermatovenereology department of Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah Hospital, medical cosmetic division, in May-July 2022. The two groups will compare ferritin mean and ferritin risk factor analysis on the incidence of melasma. Data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 26.

Results: The mean age in the melasma group was 40.64±3.39 years old, and the group without melasma was 37.64±3.50 years old (p=0.75). Of the 28 melasma subjects, there were more subjects with low ferritin levels (60.7%) than the group without melasma (32.1%). From the results of the Mann-Whitney test, the mean ferritin level in the melasma group (36.32±31.05) was significantly lower than in the non-melasma group (58.26±5.39); p=0.006. From the results of the Chi-Square test, it was found that low ferritin levels had a risk of 3.2 times the occurrence of melasma [OR (95% CI) = 3.2 (1.098-9.776), p=0.032].

Conclusion: The mean ferritin level in women with melasma is lower than in women without melasma, and low ferritin levels are a risk factor for melasma.

 

Latar Belakang: Melasma merupakan kelainan pigmentasi didapat yang ditandai dengan adanya bercak hiperpigmentasi simetris, paling sering terlihat pada wajah. Melasma dan defisiensi besi paling sering dijumpai pada wanita usia reproduktif. Defisiensi besi menyebabkan turunnya kadar feritin yang merupakan cadangan besi dalam tubuh. Mekanisme defisiensi zat besi menyebabkan melasma diduga akibat hipoksia sel di dalam jaringan melibatkan mediator yang meningkatkan melanogenesis. Studi ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan rerata kadar feritin lebih rendah pada melasma dibandingkan tanpa melasma serta membuktikan kadar feritin yang rendah merupakan faktor risiko melasma pada wanita.

Metode: Studi case-control yang melibatkan 28 subjek dengan melasma dan 28 subjek tanpa melasma yang berobat ke poliklinik kulit dan kelamin RSUP Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah divisi kosmetik medik periode Mei-Juli 2022. Kedua kelompok akan dibandingkan rerata feritin dan analisis faktor risiko feritin terhadap kejadian melasma. Data ditabulasi dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan SPSS 26.

Hasil: Rerata usia pada kelompok melasma 40.64±3,39 tahun dan kelompok tanpa melasma 37,64±3,50 tahun (p=0,75). Dari 28 subjek melasma, didapatkan lebih banyak subjek dengan kadar feritin rendah (60,7%) dibandingkan kelompok tanpa melasma (32,1%). Dari hasil uji Mann-Whitney didapatkan rerata kadar feritin pada kelompok melasma (36,32±31,05) lebih rendah secara signifikan dibandingkan pada kelompok bukan melasma (58,26±5,39); p=0,006. Dari hasil uji Chi-Square didapatkan kadar feritin yang rendah memiliki risiko sebesar 3,2 kali terjadinya melasma [OR (IK 95%) =3,2 (1,098-9,776), p=0,032].

Simpulan: rerata kadar feritin pada wanita dengan melasma lebih rendah dibandingkan wanita tanpa melasma dan kadar feritin yang rendah merupakan faktor risiko melasma.

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How to Cite

Stephanie, A., Luh Made Mas Rusyati, Ni Luh Putu Ratih Vibriyanti Karna, Ketut Kwartantaya Winaya, Nyoman Suryawati, & I Gusti Ayu Agung Dwi Karmila. (2022). Kadar feritin yang rendah merupakan faktor risiko melasma pada wanita. Intisari Sains Medis, 13(2), 487–492. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v13i2.1473

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Aurelia Stephanie
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Luh Made Mas Rusyati
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Ni Luh Putu Ratih Vibriyanti Karna
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Ketut Kwartantaya Winaya
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Nyoman Suryawati
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I Gusti Ayu Agung Dwi Karmila
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