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Tingginya rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu sebagai faktor risiko persalinan preterm spontan

Abstract

Introduction: Preterm delivery is still a major problem in pregnancy and causes 70% of all perinatal deaths. The immaturity of the organ systems of preterm infants increases neonatal morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. The incidence of preterm delivery at Sanglah Hospital in 2015 was 285 cases out of 1198 births or 23.7%. Inflammation is thought to be the cause of 40% cases of preterm labor and as much as 70-80% of spontaneous preterm births has a significant relationship with the incidence of infection in the vagina and cervix. The physiological immune response to inflammation is characterized by an increase in the number of circulating neutrophils and a decrease in the number of lymphocytes. There is a controversy regarding the relationship between an increase of neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in maternal serum and the threatened preterm delivery. This study aims to determine that a high neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in maternal blood serum is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm delivery.

Method: This research was an analytic case control study with 56 samples, and divided into two groups, 28 preterm delivery samples as a case group and 28 preterm pregnancy samples as a control group. This research was conducted at the Obstetric and Gynecology Outpatient clinic as well as the delivery room at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar in the period of November 2020 to April 2021.

Result: Analysis results of this study found a statistically significant difference (p = 0.003) between the case and control groups. The group of patients with high maternal neutrophil to lymphocyte serum ratio had a chance of preterm labor 5.6 times higher compared to the group of patients with low maternal neutrophil to lymphocyte serum ratio (OR = 5.6; CI 95% = 1.74-18.42; p=0.003).

Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the high maternal neutrophils to lymphocytes serum ratio is a risk factor for 5.6 times the occurrence of spontaneous preterm labor.

 

Pendahuluan: Persalinan preterm masih menjadi masalah utama pada ibu hamil dan menyebabkan 70% dari seluruh kasus kematian perinatal. Imaturitas sistem organ tubuh bayi prematur meningkatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas neonatal dibandingkan dengan bayi lahir cukup bulan. Angka kejadian persalinan preterm di RSUP Sanglah pada tahun 2015 sebesar 285 kasus dari 1198 kelahi­ran atau sebesar 23,7%. Inflamasi diduga sebagai penyebab dari 40% kasus persalinan preterm dan sebanyak 70-80% persalinan preterm spontan mempunyai hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian infeksi pada vagina dan serviks. Respon imun fisiologis terhadap inflamasi ditandai oleh peningkatan jumlah neutrofil yang beredar dan penurunan jumlah limfosit. Terdapat kontroversi hubungan antara peningkatan rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu dan ancaman persalinan preterm, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bahwa tingginya rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu merupakan faktor risiko persalinan preterm spontan.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik dengan rancangan kasus kontrol dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 56 sampel, dan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu 28 sampel persalinan preterm sebagai kelompok kasus dan 28 sampel kehamilan preterm sebagai kelompok kontrol. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Poliklinik Obstetri dan Ginekologi serta kamar bersalin IGD RSUP Sanglah Denpasar periode November 2020 hingga April 2021.

Hasil: Hasil analisis dari penelitian ini didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan secara statistik (p = 0,003) antara kelompok kasus dan kontrol. Kelompok pasien dengan nilai rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu yang tinggi memiliki kemungkinan sebesar 5,6 kali mengalami persalinan preterm dibandingkan dengan kelompok pasien dengan rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu yang rendah (OR = 5,6, IK 95% = 1,74-18,42, p = 0,003).

Simpulan: Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah tingginya rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu merupakan faktor risiko 5,6 kali terjadinya persalinan preterm spontan.

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How to Cite

Suwardewa, T. G. A., Mahendra, I. N. B., Wiradnyana, A. A. G. P., Aryana, M. B. D., Winata, I. G. S., Megadhana, I. W., & Susanto, D. H. (2022). Tingginya rasio neutrofil terhadap limfosit serum darah ibu sebagai faktor risiko persalinan preterm spontan. Intisari Sains Medis, 13(1), 268–273. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v13i1.1268

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Tjokorda Gde Agung Suwardewa
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I Nyoman Bayu Mahendra
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Anak Agung Gede Putra Wiradnyana
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Made Bagus Dwi Aryana
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I Gde Sastra Winata
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