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Gambaran karekteristik kejadian sifilis kongenital di RSUD Wangaya, Kota Denpasar

Abstract

Background: Syphilis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections every year. In mothers who do not receive treatment, transmission of infection from mother to fetus can occur, causing congenital syphilis. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of cases of congenital syphilis in Wangaya Hospital, Denpasar.

Methods: This descriptive study used the medical records of pediatric patients at the Wangaya Hospital, Denpasar, for the period January 2020 to October 2021. The inclusion criteria used were newborns diagnosed with congenital syphilis with complete medical record data. The exclusion criteria used were newborns suffering from congenital syphilis accompanied by other infections, namely Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and other congenital disorders not related to syphilis.

Results: Of the 47 study subjects who met the inclusion criteria, 68.1% of cases were asymptomatic and 31.9% symptomatic, 68.1% of term pregnancy, 31.9% preterm, low birth weight 29.8%, very low 4 .3%, and 66% normal body weight. Clinical manifestations found in symptomatic cases were respiratory distress (27.7%), jaundice/jaundice (21.3%), anemia (19.1%), skin lesions/rash (12.8%), sepsis (10 .6%), leukocytosis (10.6%), and thrombocytopenia (10.6%). Outcome of survival was 93.6% and death was 6.4% of cases.

Conclusion: Most cases of congenital syphilis are asymptomatic. In symptomatic cases, the characteristic clinical manifestations that are often encountered are respiratory distress, jaundice, anemia, skin rash, sepsis, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Recognizing the characteristics of congenital syphilis cases early is very important to reduce mortality from the disease.

 

Latar Belakang: Sifilis merupakan salah satu infeksi menular seksual yang banyak terjadi setiap tahunnya. Pada ibu yang tidak mendapatkan pengobatan, dapat terjadi transmisi infeksi ibu ke janin sehingga menyebabkan kejadian sifilis kongenital. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran karakteristik dari kasus-kasus sifilis kongenital di RSUD Wangaya kota Denpasar.

Metode: Penelitian deskriptif ini menggunakan rekam medis pasien anak di RSUD Wangaya kota Denpasar periode Januari 2020 hingga Oktober 2021. Kriteria inklusi yang digunakan adalah bayi baru lahir yang didiagnosis sifilis kongenital dengan data rekam medis yang lengkap. Kriteria eksklusi yang digunakan adalah bayi baru lahir yang menderita sifilis kongenital disertai infeksi lainnya, yaitu Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, maupun kelainan kongenital lain yang tidak berkaitan dengan sifilis.

Hasil : Dari 47 subjek penelitian yang masuk di dalam kriteria inklusi, 68,1% kasus asimptomatik dan 31,9% simptomatik, kehamilan aterm 68,1%, kurang bulan 31,9%, berat badan lahir rendah 29,8%, sangat rendah 4,3%, dan berat badan normal 66%. Manifestasi klinis yang ditemukan pada kasus simptomatik, yaitu distres nafas (27,7%), ikterus/jaundice (21,3%), anemia (19,1%), lesi/ruam kulit (12,8%), sepsis (10,6%), leukositosis (10,6%), dan trombositopenia (10,6%). Luaran hidup 93,6% dan meninggal 6,4% kasus.

Kesimpulan : Sebagian besar kasus sifilis kongenital tidak bergejala atau asimptomatik. Pada kasus bergejala, karakteristik manifestasi klinis yang sering ditemui adalah distres nafas, jaundice, anemia, ruam kulit, sepsis, leukositosis, dan trombositopenia. Mengenali karakteristik kasus sifilis kongenital sejak dini sangat penting untuk mengurangi mortalitas dari penyakit.

References

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How to Cite

Mahadewi, I. G. A., Hsieh, P. P., Beatrice, C., & Indrawan, I. G. D. K. (2022). Gambaran karekteristik kejadian sifilis kongenital di RSUD Wangaya, Kota Denpasar. Intisari Sains Medis, 13(2), 362–366. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v13i2.1253

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I Gusti Ayu Mahadewi
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Peter Prayogo Hsieh
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Callista Beatrice
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I Gde Doddy Kurnia Indrawan
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