Research Article

Efek ekstrak sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap ekspresi vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) dan intimal media thickness (IMT) pada mencit yang terpapar asap rokok

I Made Adi Satria Darma , Wayan Aryadana, I Nyoman Wiryawan, I Gede Raka Widiana, I Gusti Nyoman Kamasan Arijana, Made Satria Yudha Dewangga

I Made Adi Satria Darma
PPDS-1 Ilmu Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Email: imadeadisatriadarma@gmail.com

Wayan Aryadana
Departemen/KSM Ilmu Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

I Nyoman Wiryawan
Departemen/KSM Ilmu Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

I Gede Raka Widiana
Departemen/KSM Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

I Gusti Nyoman Kamasan Arijana
Departemen/KSM Histologi Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali-Indonesia

Made Satria Yudha Dewangga
Departemen/KSM Ilmu Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: November 12, 2021 | Cite this Article
Adi Satria Darma, I., Aryadana, W., Wiryawan, I., Widiana, I., Arijana, I., Yudha Dewangga, M. 2021. Efek ekstrak sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap ekspresi vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) dan intimal media thickness (IMT) pada mencit yang terpapar asap rokok. Intisari Sains Medis 12(3): 828-834. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i3.1175


Introduction: Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) is a plant that spread almost throughout the Indonesian archipelago and has been used for a long time as traditional medicine. Several previous literatures reported that sambiloto has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, so its use is useful in cardiovascular disease, especially in reducing the process of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of giving sambiloto extract on markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis in the form of VCAM-1 expression and IMT in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Methods: This study used an experimental analytical method with a post-test-only group design. Using 32 healthy adult male mice weighing 20-30 grams were divided into four treatment groups, namely: control group (P0) only given exposure to cigarette smoke and treatment group 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 3 (P3) given exposure cigarettes and sambiloto extract with doses of 18, 29, and 40 mg/kg/day. Exposure is given for 60 days, then the VCAM-1 expression and IMT in the aortic arch were examined histologically.

Results: There were significant differences in VCAM-1 expression and IMT between the control group and all treatment groups. There was a significant decrease in VCAM-1 expression between P1 and P2 and P2 and P3. There was a significant decrease in IMT between P1 and P2 and P2 and P3.

Conclusion: Sambiloto extract has effect in decreasing VCAM-1 expression and IMT. That effect strengthens with increasing dose. The maximum effect is obtained with the use of a dose of 40 mg/kg/day.

 

Latar Belakang: Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) merupakan tanaman yang tersebar hampir di seluruh nusantara dan telah digunakan sejak lama oleh masyarakat Indonesia sebagai obat tradisional. Dari beberapa literatur sebelumnya melaporkan sambiloto memiliki efek antiinflamasi dan antioksidan sehingga bermaafaat dalam bidang penyakit kardiovaskular terutama mengurangi proses aterosklerosis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek pemberian ekstrak sambiloto terhadap petanda inflamasi dan atherosklerosis berupa ekspresi VCAM-1 dan IMT pada mencit yang terpapar asap rokok.    

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analitik eksperimental dengan rancangan post test only group design. Menggunakan 32 ekor mencit jantan dewasa kondisi sehat dengan berat 20-30 gram dibagi menjadi empat kelompok perlakuan yaitu kelompok kontrol (P0) hanya diberikan paparan asap rokok dan kelompok perlakuan 1 (P1), 2 (P2), dan 3 (P3) diberikan paparan rokok sigaret dan ekstrak sambiloto dengan dosis 18, 29, dan 40 mg/kg/hari. Paparan diberikan selama 60 hari, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan histologi ekspresi VCAM-1 dan IMT pada arkus aorta mencit.

Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna ekspresi VCAM-1 dan IMT antara kelompok kontrol dengan semua kelompok perlakuan. Terdapat penurunan bermakna ekspresi VCAM-1 antara P1 dengan P2 dan P2 dengan P3. Terdapat penurunan bermakna tebal IMT antara P1 dengan P2 dan P2 dengan P3.

Simpulan: Ekstrak sambiloto memiliki efek menurunkan ekspresi VCAM-1 dan tebal IMT. Efek tersebut meningkat dengan peningkatan dosis. Efek maksimal diperoleh dengan penggunaan dosis 40 mg/kg/hari.

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