Research Article

Karakteristik faktor penyebab hiperbilirubinemia pada neonatus di RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan, Bali Tahun 2021

Intan Astariani , I Wayan Dharma Artana, Ni Made Rini Suari

Intan Astariani
RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia. Email: astariani.intan@gmail.com

I Wayan Dharma Artana
RSIA Puri Bunda, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia ; Staff Departemen/KSM Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) Sanglah, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Ni Made Rini Suari
RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan, Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia ; RSIA Puri Bunda, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: December 21, 2021 | Cite this Article
Astariani, I., Artana, I., Suari, N. 2021. Karakteristik faktor penyebab hiperbilirubinemia pada neonatus di RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan, Bali Tahun 2021. Intisari Sains Medis 12(3): 917-920. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i3.1174


Background: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a clinical problem that often occurs in neonates, 60% occurs in term neonates and 80% in preterm neonates.. There are non pathological and pathological hyperbilirubinemia. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by 4 board groups, which are increased bilirubin production, deficiency of hepatic uptake, impaired bilirubin conjugation, and increased enterohepatic circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the factors causing hyperbilirubinemia.

Methods: This study used a restrospective cross-sectional method by taking 1 year data, from June 2020 until May 2021. Amount of samples was 146 neonates with diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia and receiving intensive phototherapy treatment in the Intermediate Room and Neonatal HCU at Puri Bunda Tabanan Mother and Child Hospital. The causative factors collected were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, breastfeeding jaundice, breastmilk jaundice, low birth weight baby, cephal hematome, and neonatal sepsis. Data collected through medical record and analyzed, subsequently explained descriptively with table.

Result: The result show that from 146 samples that met the inclusion criteria, the most causative factor of hyperbilirubinemia was ABO incompatibility 29 (19.9%), prematurity 16 (11%), low birth weight 15 (10.3%), breastfeeding jaundice 15 (10.3%), neonatal sepsis 15 (10.3%), breastmilk jaundice 12 (8.2%), neonatal asphyxia 7 (4.8%), and no sample with cephal hematome.

Conclusion: Factors causing hyperbilirubinemia found at Puri Bunda Tabanan Mother and Child Hospital were ABO icompatibility as the most common cause and neonatal asphyxia as the least cause.

 

Pendahuluan: Hiperbilirubinemia neonatal merupakan permasalahan klinis yang sering terjadi pada neonatus, sekitar 60% terjadi pada neonatus aterm dan 80% pada neonatus preterm. Kernicterus sebagai komplikasi dari hiperbilirubinemia memiliki angka kematian 10% dan morbiditas jangka panjang 70%. Hiperbilirubinemia ada yang non patologis dan patologis. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia disebabkan oleh 4 kelompok besar yaitu peningkatan produksi bilirubin, defisiensi uptake hepar, gangguan konjugasi bilirubin, dan peningkatan sirkulasi enterohepatik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik faktor penyebab hiperbilirubinemia.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode cross-sectional retrospective dengan mengambil data selama 1 tahun yaitu periode Juni 2020-Mei 2021. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 146 neonatus dengan diagnosis hiperbilirubinemia dan mendapatkan tatalaksana fototerapi di ruang Intermediate dan HCU Neonatus di RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan. Faktor penyebab yang dikumpulkan yaitu inkompatibilitas ABO, prematuritas, asfiksia neonatorum, breastfeeding jaundice, breastmilk jaundice, BBLR, cephal hematoma, dan sepsis neonatorum. Data dikumpulkan melalui rekam medis dan dianalisa untuk kemudian disajikan secara deskriptif.

Hasil: Dari 146 sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, didapatkan penyebab pertama yaitu inkompatibilitas ABO sebanyak 29 (19,9%), prematuritas sebanyak 16 (11%), BBLR sebanyak 15 (10,3%), breastfeeding jaundice sebanyak 15 (10,3%), sepsis neonatorum sebanyak 15 (10,3%), breastmilk jaundice sebanyak 12(8,2%), asfiksia neonatorum sebanyak 7 (4,8%), dan tidak ada penyebab berupa cephal hematoma yang ditemukan.

Simpulan: Faktor penyebab hiperbilirubinemia yang didapatkan di RSIA Puri Bunda Tabanan yaitu inkompatibilitas ABO sebagai penyebab terbanyak dan asfiksia neonatorum sebagai penyebab paling sedikit.

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