Research Article

Angka insiden dan faktor risiko malnutrisi rumah sakit pada anak rawat inap di RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia

Anak Agung Ratna Purnama Santhi , I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ayu Putu Eka Pratiwi

Anak Agung Ratna Purnama Santhi
Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia. Email: ratnapurnamasanthi@gmail.com

I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha
Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia

I Gusti Ayu Putu Eka Pratiwi
Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: October 19, 2021 | Cite this Article
Santhi, A., Sidiartha, I., Pratiwi, I. 2021. Angka insiden dan faktor risiko malnutrisi rumah sakit pada anak rawat inap di RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis 12(3): 742-748. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i3.1107


Background: Nutritional support is an important aspect of the clinical management of hospitalized children. Several factors contribute to prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children and it can led to deterioration of nutritional status. Research on factors related to malnutrition in pediatric hospitalized patients is still limited, especially in Indonesia. This study aims to evaluate the incidence rate and risk factors of malnutrition in hospitalized children at Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia.

Methods: This study was a prospective analytic observational study in children who underwent hospitalization in class II and III inpatient rooms for the period August 2020-February 2021. Inclusion criteria were pediatric patients aged 1 to 18 years who were hospitalized for at least 48 hours and had complete medical records. Samples were taken by consecutive sampling until the number of subjects was met. A significant variable is a variable that has a p-value <0.05. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 for Windows.

Results: A total of 95 subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The incidence of hospital malnutrition was 28%. The risk factors associated with hospital malnutrition were fever, diarrhea and vomiting. Multiple diagnosis, acute and chronic malnutrition, low maternal education, surgical and medical departments also contribute to hospital malnutrition. The results of multivariate analysis were acute malnutrition and length of stay as independent risk factors for hospital malnutrition (OR, 3.843; 95% CI, 1.762-5.431; p=0.005) and length of stay (OR, 5.791; 95% CI, 2.157-6.491; p=0.026)

Conclusion: The incidence of patients with hospital malnutrition in children at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar is 28%. Acute malnutrition and length of stay are independent risk factors for malnutrition during hospitalization.

 

Latar belakang: Dukungan nutrisi adalah aspek penting dalam manajemen klinis anak yang dirawat di rumah sakit. Beberapa faktor berkontribusi terhadap meluasnya malnutrisi pada anak yang dirawat di rumah sakit dan menyebabkan eksaserbasi status gizi.  Penelitian mengenai faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan malnutrisi pada pasien pediatri yang menjalani rawat inap masih sangatlah terbatas khususnya di Indonesia meskipun memiliki urgensi yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi angka insiden dan faktor risiko malnutrisi rumah sakit pada anak rawat inap di RSUP Sanglah, Bali, Indonesia

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik pada anak dengan metode penelitian kohort prospektif yang menjalani rawat inap di ruang rawat inap kelas II dan III periode bulan Agustus 2020-Februari 2021. Kriteria inklusi yaitu pasien anak berusia 1 hingga 18 tahun, menjalani rawat inap di RS minimal 48 jam, dan memiliki catatan medis yang lengkap. sampel diambil secara konsekutif sampai jumlah subyek terpenuhi. Variabel yang signifikan adalah variabel yang mempunyai nilai p<0,05. Data dianalisis dengan SPSS versi 20 untuk Windows.

Hasil: Sebanyak 95 subjek yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Insiden malnutrisi rumah sakit didapatkan sebesar 28%. Faktor RISIKO yang berhubungan dengan malnutrisi rumah sakit adalah demam, diare dan muntah. Diagnosis multipel, kurang gizi akut dan kronis, lama rawat,pendidikan ibu rendah, dan departemen rawat juga sebagai faktor RISIKO malnutrisi rumah sakit. Hasil analisis multivariat dilakukan dengan hasil kurang gizi akut dan lama rawat sebagai faktor risiko independen terjadinya malnutrisi rumah sakit (OR, 3.843; 95% CI, 1.762-5.431; p=0.005) dan lama rawat (OR, 5.791; 95% CI, 2.157-6.491; p=0.026)

Simpulan: Insiden pasien dengan malnutrisi rumah sakit pada anak di RSUP Sanglah Denpasar adalah sebesar 28%. Kondisi kurang gizi akut dan lama rawat merupakan faktor risiko independen terjadinya malnutrisi selama perawatan di rumah sakit.

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