Research Article

Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kematian neonatus di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar

Ni Kadek Risa Astria , Made Ayu Cynthia Windasari

Ni Kadek Risa Astria
Dokter Magang, Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Sanjiwani, Gianyar. Email: risaastria955@gmail.com

Made Ayu Cynthia Windasari
Dokter Spesialis Anak, Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Sanjiwani, Gianyar
Online First: July 16, 2021 | Cite this Article
Astria, N., Windasari, M. 2021. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kematian neonatus di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar. Intisari Sains Medis 12(2): 468-472. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i2.1065


Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) data in 2019 estimated around 2.4 million neonates died at the age of 1 month of life worldwide. Indonesia ranked the seventh position out of 10 countries in terms of the highest neonatal mortality rate, which was around 60,000 neonatal deaths in 2019. Among the leading causes of neonatal mortality are asphyxia, low birth weight (LBW) infants, preterm gestational age, neonatal sepsis and parity. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with neonatal mortality in Sanjiwani Hospital, Gianyar.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study. The data were obtained from secondary data. The sampling technique was consecutive sampling with a total sample of 104 neonates who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. The dependent variable was neonatal mortality, while the independent variables were asphyxia, low birth weight, preterm gestational age, neonatal sepsis, and parity. The data were analysed with the chi-square test on SPSS version 26. The relationship between variables was determined to be significant if the p value <0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: Risk factors associated with neonatal mortality included asphyxia (p=0.0001; RP=15.47; 95% CI: 5.93-40.39), preterm gestational age (p=0.0001; RP=5.00; 95% CI: 2.15-11.59), LBW (p=0.0001; RP=8.20; 95% CI: 3.39-19.79), and neonatal sepsis (p=0.005; RP=3.23; 95% CI: 1.42-7.33). Meanwhile, parity was found not to be significantly associated with neonatal mortality (p=0.551; RP=1.28; 95% CI: 0.58-2.84).

Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between asphyxia, preterm gestational age, low birth weight and neonatal sepsis with neonatal mortality in Sanjiwani Hospital, Gianyar.

 

 

Latar Belakang: Berdasarkan data dari World Health Organization (WHO), pada tahun 2019 diperkirakan sekitar 2,4 juta bayi meninggal pada usia 1 bulan kehidupannya di seluruh dunia. Indonesia menduduki posisi ketujuh dari 10 negara dengan angka kematian neonatus tertinggi yaitu sekitar 60.000 kematian neonatus pada tahun 2019. Faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi kematian neonatus seperti asfiksia, bayi dengan berat lahir rendah (BBLR), usia kehamilan preterm, sepsis neonatorum dan jumlah paritas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kematian neonatus di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analitik dengan desain cross-sectional. Data penelitian diperoleh dari data sekunder. Teknik pengambilan sampel berupa consecutive sampling dengan jumlah sampel yang terlibat sebanyak 104 neonatus yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi penelitian. Variabel terikat penelitian adalah kematian neonatus, sementara variabel bebas berupa asfiksia, BBLR, usia kehamilan preterm, sepsis neonatorum, dan jumlah paritas. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji chi-square pada SPSS versi 26. Hubungan antar variabel dinyatakan bermakna secara signifikan jika nilai p<0,05 dengan interval kepercayaan (IK) 95%.

Hasil: Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan kematian neonatus meliputi asfiksia (p=0,0001; RP=15,47; 95% IK: 5,93 - 40,39), usia kehamilan preterm (p=0,0001; RP=5,00; 95% IK: 2,15-11,59), BBLR (p=0,0001; RP=8,20; 95% IK: 3,39-19,79), dan sepsis neonatorum (p=0,005; RP=3,23; 95% IK: 1,42-7,33). Sementara jumlah paritas ditemukan tidak berhubungan secara signifikan dengan kematian neonatus (p=0,551; RP=1,28; 95% IK: 0,58-2,84).

Simpulan: Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara asfiksia, usia kehamilan preterm, BBLR dan sepsis neonatorum dengan kematian neonatus di RSUD Sanjiwani Gianyar. 

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