Research Article

Faktor risiko kejadian berat bayi lahir rendah di RSUP Sanglah, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

I Gusti Ngurah Yuda Bagus Aryana , Komang Ayu Kartika Sari, Putu Aryani

I Gusti Ngurah Yuda Bagus Aryana
Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran dan Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Email: dyudaaryana32@gmail.com

Komang Ayu Kartika Sari
Departemen Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Kedokteran Pencegahan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Putu Aryani
Departemen Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Kedokteran Pencegahan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
Online First: June 22, 2021 | Cite this Article
Aryana, I., Sari, K., Aryani, P. 2021. Faktor risiko kejadian berat bayi lahir rendah di RSUP Sanglah, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Intisari Sains Medis 12(2): 427-432. DOI:10.15562/ism.v12i2.1006


Introduction: Maternal and child health has become a primary health focus in Indonesia and the maternal and child mortality rate in Indonesia is higher than those in South-East Asia countries. The incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW) contributes to more than 50% of all neonatal mortality of all births in Indonesia. Therefore, identification of the risk factors that contributes to the incidence of LBW is important.

Method: This retrospective case-control study involved 50 cases of LBW and 50 controls (baby with normal birth-weight), The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.

Result: The results of multivariate analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with LBW incidence were maternal blood pressure (p=0.000), history of giving birth to LBW babies (p=0.000), and the mode of current labor (p=0.034). The maternal age, maternal education level, maternal occupation, maternal anemia, parity, history of smoking, history of alcohol consumption, history of abortion, parity distance, and maternal BMI had no significant association (p>0.005).

Conclusion: Thus, the incidence of LBW can be prevented through maternal blood control during the pregnancy. Careful history taking of past history of giving birth to LBW babies and the mode of delivery must be done to reduce the incidence of LBW.

 

 

Pendahuluan: Kesehatan ibu dan anak merupakan salah satu fokus utama kesehatan di Indonesia. Kasus kematian ibu dan anak di Indonesia lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Kejadian bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR) berkontribusi terhadap lebih dari 50% total kematian neonatal di seluruh kelahiran di Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, identifikasi faktor-faktor risiko yang mendasari kejadian BBLR menjadi penting untuk dilakukan.

Metode: Penelitian kasus kontrol retrospektif ini melibatkan 50 kasus (BBLR) dan 50 kontrol (bayi lahir dengan berat badan normal. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis menggunakan perangkat SPSS versi 22.

Hasil: Hasil analisis multivariat didapatkan faktor-faktor yang memiliki hubungan signifikan dengan kejadian BBLR adalah tekanan darah ibu (p=0,000), riwayat melahirkan bayi BBLR (p=0,000), dan tipe persalinan bayi saat ini (p=0,034). Sebaliknya, faktor usia ibu, tingkat pendidikan ibu, pekerjaan ibu, anemia pada ibu, jumlah paritas, riwayat merokok, riwayat konsumsi alkohol, riwayat abortus, jarak paritas, dan IMT ibu tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan (p>0,005).

Simpulan: Pencegahan kejadian BBLR dapat dilakukan dengan mengontrol tekanan darah ibu selama kehamilan. Penggalian riwayat melahirkan bayi BBLR sebelumnya dan pemilihan metode persalinan juga harus dilakukan dengan seksama untuk mengurangi kejadian BBLR.

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