Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Gejala konjungtivitis pada pasien dengan COVID-19: sebuah tinjauan sistematis


Background: Infection of severe acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms are not typical, making clinical diagnosis difficult to do. A number of studies have stated that ocular involvement in the form of conjunctivitis can be one of the symptoms of COVID-19 infection. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the symptoms of conjunctivitis in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out by searching the literature on the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, and Google Scholar, also selecting the literature using the PRISMA diagram. The inclusion criteria used were studies that examined the symptoms of conjunctivitis in COVID-19 patients published in the range of 2020-2021. Studies in the form of editorials, commentaries, reviews or meta-analyses, articles are not available in full-text, not available in English or Indonesian, do not discuss ocular manifestations of COVID-19 infection, or only discuss the detection of the SARS CoV-2 virus in conjunctival secretions. So that there were 12 studies that met the eligibility criteria.

Results: There were 12 studies that carried out synthetic analysis, namely 4 cross-sectional studies, one case-control study, one case series study, and six case reports. The prevalence of conjunctivitis symptoms in COVID-19 infection ranges from 5.04-31.75%. Conjunctivitis is more common in male COVID-19 patients, with mild to moderate symptoms and duration of illness ranging from 5-26 days. Conjunctivitis in COVID-19 patients was reported as an early symptom of COVID-19 infection and the data became the sole symptom of COVID-19 infection. The habit of rubbing the eyes, impaired smell and taste were found to be significantly associated with conjunctivitis symptoms.

Conclusion: Although conjunctivitis is found in only a minority of COVID-19 cases, the conjunctiva can be one of the routes of transmission of COVID-19 infection. The use of goggles and face shields is important as an effort to prevent infection transmission.


Latar Belakang Infeksi severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) atau Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) telah menjadi pandemi global. Gejala klinisnya yang tidak khas membuat penegakkan diagnosis klinis sulit dilakukan. Sejumlah studi menyebutkan keterlibatan okuler berupa konjungtivitis dapat menjadi salah satu gejala infeksi COVID-19. Tujuan dari systematic review ini adalah untuk mengetahui gejala konjungtivitis pada pasien dengan infeksi COVID-19.

Metode: Tinjauan pustaka sistematis dilakukan dengan pencarian literatur pada Cochrane Library, Pubmed dan Google Scholar, juga pemilihan literatur menggunakan diagram PRISMA. Kriteria inklusi yang digunakan adalah studi yang meneliti gejala konjungtivitis pada pasien COVID-19 yang terpublikasi pada rentang tahun 2020-2021. Studi berupa editorial, commentary, review maupun meta analisis, artikel tidak tersedia secara full-text, tidak tersedia dalam Bahasa Inggris atau Indonesia, tidak membahas manifestasi okuler pada infeksi COVID-19, atau hanya membahas mengenai deteksi virus SARS CoV-2 pada sekresi konjungtiva dilakukan eksklusi sehingga didapatkan 12 studi yang memenuhi kriteria eligibilitas.

Hasil: Terdapat 12 studi yang dilakukan analisis sintesis, yakni 4 studi cross sectional, satu studi kasus kontrol, satu studi serial kasus dan enam laporan kasus. Prevalensi gejala konjungtivitis pada infeksi COVID-19 berkisar 5,04-31,75%. Konjungtivitis lebih banyak ditemukan pada pasien COVID-19 berjenis kelamin laki-laki, dengan gejala ringan sedang dan durasi penyakit berkisar 5-26 hari. Konjungtivitis pada pasien COVID-19 dilaporkan sebagai gejala awal infeksi COVID-19 dan data menjadi gejala tunggal infeksi COVID-19. Kebiasaan menggosok mata, gangguan penciuman dan pengecap ditemukan signifikan berhubungan dengan gejala konjungtivitis.

Simpulan: Meskipun konjungtivitis ditemukan hanya pada sebagian kecil kasus COVID-19, konjungtiva dapat menjadi salah satu rute transmisi infeksi COVID-19. Penggunaan goggles dan face shield penting dilakukan sebagai upaya pencegahan transmisi infeksi.


  1. Seah I, Agrawal R. Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Affect the Eyes? A Review of Coronaviruses and Ocular Implications in Humans and Animals. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2020;28(3):391-395. doi:10.1080/09273948.2020.1738501
  2. Nasiri N, Sharifi H, Bazrafshan A, Noori A, Karamouzian M, Sharifi A. Ocular Manifestations of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2021;16(1):103-112. Published 2021 Jan 20. doi:10.18502/jovr.v16i1.8256
  3. Amesty MA, Alió Del Barrio JL, Alió JL. COVID-19 Disease and Ophthalmology: An Update. Ophthalmol Ther. 2020;9(3):1-12. doi:10.1007/s40123-020-00260-y
  4. Douglas KAA, Douglas VP, Moschos MM. Ocular Manifestations of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2): A Critical Review of Current Literature. In Vivo. 2020;34(3 Suppl):1619-1628. doi:10.21873/invivo.11952
  5. Wu P, Duan F, Luo C, et al. Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020;138(5):575-578. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.1291
  6. Lu CW, Liu XF, Jia ZF. 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):e39. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30313-5
  7. Sarma P, Kaur H, Kaur H, Bhattacharyya J, Prajapat M, Shekhar N, Prakash A. Ocular manifestations and tear or Conjunctival swab PCR positivity for 2019-nCoV in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2020. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3566161
  8. Zhou Y, Duan C, Zeng Y, et al. Ocular Findings and Proportion with Conjunctival SARS-COV-2 in COVID-19 Patients. Ophthalmology. 2020;127(7):982-983. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.04.028
  9. Panoutsopoulos AA. Conjunctivitis as a Sentinel of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: a Need of Revision for Mild Symptoms [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 19]. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;1-6. doi:10.1007/s42399-020-00360-7
  10. Chen L, Deng C, Chen X, Zhang X, Chen B, Yu H, Sun X. Ocular manifestations and clinical characteristics of 535 cases of COVID?19 in Wuhan, China: a cross?sectional study. Acta ophthalmologica. 2020;98(8):e951-e959. doi:10.1111/aos.14472
  11. Sindhuja K, Lomi N, Asif MI, Tandon R. Clinical profile and prevalence of conjunctivitis in mild COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020;68(8):1546-1550. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1319_20
  12. Güemes-Villahoz N, Burgos-Blasco B, García-Feijoó J, et al. Conjunctivitis in COVID-19 patients: frequency and clinical presentation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2020;258(11):2501-2507. doi:10.1007/s00417-020-04916-0
  13. Shemer A, Einan-Lifshitz A, Itah A, Dubinsky-Pertzov B, Pras E, Hecht I. Ocular involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical and molecular analysis. Int Ophthalmol. 2021;41(2):433-440. doi:10.1007/s10792-020-01592-1
  14. Marquezan MC, Marquezam JP, Nascimento H, Chalita MR, de Freitas D, Belfort Jr R. Conjunctivitis Related to not Severe COVID-19: A Case Report. Ocular immunology and inflammation. 2020;1-3. Doi: 10.1080/09273948.2020.1837186
  15. Daruich A, Martin D, Bremond-Gignac D. Ocular manifestation as first sign of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Interest of telemedicine during the pandemic context. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2020;43(5):389-391. doi:10.1016/j.jfo.2020.04.002
  16. Nayak B, Poddar C, Panigrahi MK, Tripathy S, Mishra B. Late manifestation of follicular conjunctivitis in ventilated patient following COVID-19 positive severe pneumonia. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020;68(8):1675-1677. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1682_20
  17. Navel V, Chiambaretta F, Dutheil F. Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2. American journal of ophthalmology case reports. 2020;19: 100735. doi:10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100735
  18. Scalinci SZ, Trovato Battagliola E. Conjunctivitis can be the only presenting sign and symptom of COVID-19. IDCases. 2020;20:e00774. doi:10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00774
  19. Ozturker ZK. Conjunctivitis as sole symptom of COVID-19: A case report and review of literature [published correction appears in Eur J Ophthalmol. 2020 Aug 27;:1120672120956486]. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021;31(2):NP161-NP166. doi:10.1177/1120672120946287

How to Cite

Dewi, A. P. (2021). Gejala konjungtivitis pada pasien dengan COVID-19: sebuah tinjauan sistematis. Intisari Sains Medis, 12(2), 645–652.




Search Panel

Anggari Purnama Dewi
Google Scholar
ISM Journal